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ESOTERIC KNOWLEDGE OF THE IBLE AND RELIGION
This page is livicated to the TRUTH. It is a space where I shall post the information that has allowed I to start this journey to decode Scripture and truly gain a full overstanding of JAH, Life, Irituality and Godliness.
These excerpts taught I about the origin of religion as astro-theology and the unity of all religions and races under the same solar/earthly reverence. Knowing this information has now caused I to see that sun and star and lunar imagery are behind EVERYTHING that Babylon conceptualizes. Every story, cartoon, movie, book in adult and children’s entertainment, education and religion have some cosmic or nature-based origin or are metaphors/allegories thereof.
One part of this information focuses mainly on the Sun deity and solar importance to religion. Another part focuses on the symbols of spirituality and religion that come from nature: plants, animals, birds, metals, gems and so on. Ones will also learn sacred rites and ideas of ancient priests and seers/stargazers. Elements of history and the origins of names and places are spread throughout. So all in all, by reading this information a lot of what is written in the Bible will make sense.
I know it was a lot to read, but the benefits are that I and I can now decode not only the Babylonian lies that are fed to us today, but also the impact of ancient Kemet on today’s societies and mainstream trends and attitudes. This information also helps I and I to decode our own Afrikan histories and overstand more the symbols of the continent, and the importance of Nature to Irituality. I and I, when reading this information cannot deny that the Lion, Sun and Stars are symbols related to related to the Ethiopian Throne of David and play a role in the Messianic Nature and Identity of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Sellassie I.
ANACALYPSIS – GODFREY HIGGINS
THE PLANETS AND STARS of GENESIS
Throughout all the nations of the ancient world, the planets are to be found appropriated
to the days of the week. The seven-day cycle, with each day named after a planet, and universally the same day allotted to the same planet in all nations of the world, constitute the first proof, and leave no room to doubt that one system must have prevailed over the whole. Here are the origin and the reason of all judicial astrology, as well as the foundation upon which much of the Heathen mythology was built. The two were closely and intimately connected.
It is the object of this work to trace the steps by which, from the earliest time and small
beginnings, this system grew to a vast and towering height, covering the world with
gigantic monuments and beautiful temples, enabling one part of mankind, by means of the fears and ignorance of the other part, to trample in the dust.
Uncivilized man is by nature the most timid of animals, and in that state the most
defenceless. The storm, the thunder, the lightning, or the eclipse, fills him with terror.
He is alarmed and trembles at every thing which he does not understand, and that is almost every thing that he sees or hears.
Of the different histories of the creation, that contained in the book, or collection of books, called Genesis, has been in the Western part of the world the most celebrated, and the nonsense which has been written respecting it, may fairly vie with the nonsense, a little time ago alluded to, of the ancient learned men of Greece and Rome. This book professes to commence with a history of the creation, and in our vulgar translation it says, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth." But I
conceive for the word heavens the word planets ought to be substituted. The original for
the word heavens is of great consequence. Parkhurst admits that it has the meaning of
placers or disposers. In fact, it means the planets as distinguished from the fixed stars,
and is the foundation, As I have said, and as we shall find, upon which all judicial astrology, and perhaps much of the Heathen mythology, was built.
The following are the names of the Gods allotted to each day : Sunday to the Sun, Monday to the Moon, Tuesday to Mars, Wednesday to Mercury, Thursday to Jupiter,Friday to Venus, and Saturday to Saturn : and it is worthy of observation, that neither Bacchus nor Hercules is among them; on which I shall have an observation to make inthe future part of this work. In almost every page we shall have to make some referenceto judicial astrology, which took its rise from the planetary bodies.
This doctrine respecting the Moon will be thought paradoxical and absurd, and I shall be asked what I make of the goddess Isis. I reply, that it is the inconsistencies, contradictions, and manifest ignorance of the ancients respecting this goddess, which induce me to think that Moon never was an object of worship in early times, and that it never became an object of adoration till comparatively modern times, when the knowledge of the ancient mysteries was lost, and not only the knowledge of the
mysteries, but the knowledge of religion itself, or at least of its origin and meaning,were lost. The least attention to the treatises of Plato, Phornutus, Cicero, Porphyry, and,in short, or every one of the ancient writers on the subject of the religion, must convince any unprejudiced person that they either were all completely in the dark, or pretended to be. After the canaille got to worship onions, crocodiles, etc the moon came in for a share of their adoration; but all the accounts of it are full of
inconsistency and contradiction : for this reason I think it was of late invention, and that Isis was not originally the moon, but the mother of the gods.
I shall now proceed to shew, in a way which I think I may safely say cannot be refuted,that all the Gods of antiquity resolved themselves into the solar fire, sometimes itself as God, or sometimes as emblem or shekinah of that higher principle, known by the name of the creative Being or God. …
TRINITY = SELLASSIE – CREATOR PRESERVER DESTROYER:
That the sun was the first object of the adoration of mankind, I apprehend, is a fact, which I shall be able to place beyond the reach of reasonable doubt. An absolute proofof this fact the circumstances of the case put it out of our power to produce; but it is supported by reason and common sense, and by the traditions of all nations, when carefully examined to their foundations. The allegorical accounts or mythoses of different countries, the inventions of an advanced state of society, inasmuch as they are
really only allegorical accounts or mythoses, operate nothing against this doctrine. When, after ages of ignorance and error, man became in some degree civilized, and he turned his mind to a close contemplation of the fountain of light and life—of the celestial fire—he would observe among the earliest discoveries which he would make, that by its powerful agency all nature was called into action; that to its return in the spring season the animal and vegetable creation were indebted for their increase as well as for their existence. It is probable that for this reason chiefly the sun, in early times,was believed to be the creator, and became the first object of adoration. This seems to be only a natural effect of such a cause. After some time it would be discovered that this powerful and beneficent agent, the solar fire, was the most potent destroyer, and hence would arise the first idea of a Creator and Destroyer united in the same person. But such time would not elapse before it must have been observed, that the destruction caused bythis powerful being was destruction only in appearance, that destruction was only reproduction in another form—regeneration; that if he appeared sometimes to destroy, he constantly repaired the injury which he seemed to occasion—and that, without the
light and heat, every thing would dwindle away into a cold, inert, unprolific mass. Thus at once, in the same being, became concentrated, the creating, the preserving, and the destroying powers,—in India, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; in Persia, Oromasde, Mithra, and Arimanius; in Egypt, Osiris, Neith, and Typhon; in each case Three Persons andone God. And thus arose the TRIMURTI, or the celebrated Trinity. …
We may venture, I think, to presume that adoration must first have arisen either from fear or admiration; in fact, from feeling. As an object of feeling, the sun instantly offered himself. The effect arising from the daily experience of his beneficence, does not seem to be of such a nature as to wear away by use, as is the case with most feelings of this kind. He obtrudes himself on our notice in every way. But what is there in the earth on which we tread, and which is nothing without the sun, which should induce the half-civilized man to suppose it an active agent—to suppose that it created itself ? He
would instantly see that it was, in itself, to all appearance an inert, dead, unprolific mass. And it must, I think, have required a exertion of metaphysical subtlety, infinitely graver than my trinity must have required, to arrive at a pantheism so completely removed from the common apprehension of the human understanding. In my original theory, everything is natural and seductive; in the other, every thing is unnatural and repulsive.
* Gen. chap.1.
THE DUAL PRINCIPLE OF THE GOD AND TRINITY
Of equal or nearly equal date, and almost equally disseminated throughout the world with the doctrine of the Trinity, was that of the Hermaphroditic or Androgynous character of the Deity. Man could not help observing and meditating upon the differences of the sexes. He was conscious that he himself was the highest in rank of all creatures of which he had knowledge, and he very properly and very naturally, as far as was in his power, made God after the being of highest rank known to him, after himself; thus it might be said, that in his own image, in idea, made he his God. But of what sex
was this God ? To make him neuter, supposing man to have become grammarian enough to have invented a neuter gender, was to degrade him to the rank of a stone. To make him female was evidently more analogous to the general productive and prolific characters of the author of the visible creation. To make him masculine, was still more analogous to man's own person, and to his superiority over the female, the weaker vessel; but still this was attended with many objections. From a consideration of all these circumstances, an union of the two was adopted, and he was represented as being Androgynous.
Of all the different attributes of the Creator, or faculties conferred by him on his creatures, there is no one so striking or so interesting to a reflecting person as that of the generative power. This is the most incomprehensible and mysterious of the powers of nature. When all the adjuncts or accidents of every kind so interesting to the passions and feelings of man are considered, it is not wonderful that this subject should be found in some way or other to have a place among the first of the human superstitions. Thus every where we find it accompanying the triune God, called Trimurti or Trinity, just described, under the very significant form of the single obelisk or stone-pillar, denominated the Lingham or Phallus,* and the equally significant Yoni or Cteis, the female organ of generation : sometimes single, often in conjunction. …
"Pythagoras, returning from his Eastern travels to Greece, taught the doctrine of the Metempsychosis, and the existence of a Supreme Being, by whom the universe was created, and by whose providence it is preserved; that the soul of mankind are emanations of that Being. Socrates, the wisest of the ancient philosophers, seems to have believed that the soul existed before the body; and that death relieves it from those seeming contrarieties to which it is subject, by its union with our material part. Plato (in conformity with the learned Hindoos) asserted, that God infused into matter a portion of his divine spirit, which animates and moves it : that mankind have two souls of separate and different natures—the one corruptible, the other immortal : that the latter is a portion of the Divine Spirit : that the mortal soul ceases to exist with the life of the body; but the divine soul, no longer clogged by its union with matter, continues its existence, either in a state of happiness or punishment : that the souls of the virtuous return, after death, into the source whence they flowed; while the souls of the wicked,
after being for a certain time confined to a place destined for their reception, are sent back to earth to animate other bodies. Aristotle supposes the souls of mankind to be portions or emanations of the divine spirit; which at death quit the body, and, like a drop of water falling into the ocean, are absorbed into the divinity. Zeno, the founder of the Stoic sect, taught that throughout nature there are two eternal qualities; the one active, the other passive; that the former is a pure and subtle æther, the divine spirit; and that the latter is in itself entirely inert, until united with the active principle. That the divine spirit, acting upon matter, produces fire, air, water, earth : that the divine spirit is the efficient principle, and that all nature is moved and conducted by it. He believed also that the soul of man, being a portion the universal soul, returns after death to its first source. The opinion of the soul being an emanation of the divinity, which is believed by the Hindoos, and was professed by Greeks, seems likewise to have
been adopted by the early Christians. Macrobius observes, Animarum originem emanare de coelo, inter recte philosophantes indubitatæ constant esse fidei. Saint Justin says, the soul is incorruptible, because it emanates from God; and his disciple Tatianus, the Assyrian, observes, that man having received a portion of the divinity, is immortal as God is. Such was the system of the ancient philosophers, Pythagoreans, Brachmans, and some sects of the Christians."*
* Forbes, Orient. Mem. Vol.III xxxiii p.261
The oldest philosophy or mythology of which we have any certain history, is that of the Buddha of the Eastern nations, in which are to be found the various doctrines to which I have just alluded. From the Metempsychosis arose the repugnance among the Buddhists to the slaughter of animals,—a necessary consequence of this doctrine uncorrupted and sincerely believed. From the circumstance in the first book of Genesis, or book of Wisdom, which probably a work of the Buddhists, the slaughter of animals is prohibited or not allowed. After a time the mild doctrines of Buddha came to be changed or
corrupted and superseded by those of Crishna. Hence in the second book of Genesis, or the book of the Generations, or Re-generations of the planetary bodies, which is, I think, a Brahmin work, they are allowed to be used for sacrifice. In the third book, or the book of Generations, or Re-generations of the race of man, the Adam, they are first allowed to be eaten as food.
TWO ANCIENT ETHIOPIAS—GREAT BLACK NATION IN ASIA—THE BUDDHA OF INDIA A NEGRO—THE ARABIANS WERE CUSHITES—SHEPHERD KINGS—HINDOOS AND EGYPTIANS SIMILAR—SYRIA PEOPLED FROM INDIA
… but I shall, in the course of this work, produce a number of extraordinary facts, which will be quite sufficient to prove, that a black race, in very early times, had more influence over the affairs of the world than has been lately suspected; and I think I shall shew, by some striking circumstances yet existing, that the effects of this influence have not entirely passed away. It was the opinion of Sir William Jones, that a great nation of Blacks* formely possessed the dominion of Asia, and held the seat of empire at Sidon. These must have been the people called by Mr. Maurice Cushites or Cuthites, described in Genesis; and the opinion that they were Blacks is corroborated by the translators of the Pentateuch, called the Seventy, constantly rendering the word Cush by Ethiopia. …
Of this nation we have no account; but it must have flourished after the deluge. … If I succeed in collecting a sufficient number to carry conviction to an impartial mind, theempire must be allowed to have existed.
The religion of Buddha, of India, is well known to have been very ancient. In the most ancient temples scattered throughout Asia, where his worship is yet continued, he is found black as jet, with the flat face, thick lips, and curly hair of the Negro. Several statues of him may be met with the East-India Company. There are two exemplars of him brooding on the face of the deep, upon a coiled serpent. To what time are we to allot this Negro ? He will be proved to have been prior to Cristna. He must have been prior to or contemporaneous with the black empire, supposed by Sir William Jones to have flourished at Sidon. The religion of this Negro God is found, by the ruins of his temples and other circumstances, to have been spread over an immense extent of country, even to the remotest parts of Britain, and to have been professed by devotees inconceivably numerous. …
The circumstance of the translators of the Septuagint version of the Pentateuch having rendered the word Cush by the word Ethiopia, is a very decisive proof that the theory of two Ethiopias is well founded. Let the translators have been who they may, it is totally impossible to believe that they could be so ignorant as to suppose that the African Ethiopia could border on the Euphrates, or that the Cushites could be African Ethiopia.
Eusebius* states the Ethiopians to have come and settled in Egypt, in the time of Amenophis. According to this account, as well as to the account given by
Philostratus,** there was no such country as Ethiopia beyond Egypt until this invasion.
According to Eusebius these people came from the river Indus, and planted themselves
to the south of Egypt, in the country called from them Ethiopia. The circumstances
named by Eusebius that they came from the Indus, at all events, implies that they came
from the East, and not from the South, and would induce a person to suspect them as
having crossed the Red Sea from Arabia; …
* In Chron. ad Num. 402.
** In vita Apollon. Tyanei.
Herodotus says, that there were two Ethiopian nations, one in India, the other in Egypt.
He derived his information from the Egyptoian priests, a race of people who must have known the truth; …
Philostratus* says, that the Gymnosophists of Ethiopia, who settle near the sources of
the Nile, descended from the Bramins of India, having been driven thence for the murder of their king.** This, Philostratus says, he learnt from an ancient Brahmin, called Jarchas.
* Vita Apoll. C. vi.
** Crawford, Res. Vol. II p.193.
Another ancient writer, Eustathius, also states, that the Ethiopians came from India.
These concurring accounts can scarcely be doubted; and here may be discovered the mode and time also when great numbers of ancient rites and ceremonies might be imported from India into Egypt; …
Mr. Wilsford, in his treatise on Egypt and the Nile, in the Asiatic Researches, informs us, that many very ancient statues of the God Buddha in India have crisp, curly hair, with flat noses and thick lips; and adds, "nor can it be reasonably doubted, that a race of Negroes formerly had power and pre-eminence in India."
This is confirmed by Mr. Maurice, who says, "The figures in the Hindoo caverns are of a very different character from the present race of Hindoos : their countenances are broad and full, the nose flat, and the lips, particularly the under lip, remarkably thick."
Justin states, that the Phoenecians being obliged to leave their native country in the East,
they settled first near the Assyrian Lake, which is the Persian Gulf; and Maurice says,
"We find an extensive district, named Palestine, to the east of the Euphrates and Tigris.
The word Palestine seems derived from Pallisthan, the seat of the Pallis or Shepherds."
Palli, in India, means Shepherd.
… It is a well-known fact that our Hindoo soldiers when they arrived in Egypt, in the
late war, recognized the Gods of their country in the ancient temples, particularly their
God Cristna.The striking similarity, indeed identity, of the style of architecture and the ornaments of
the ancient Egyptian and Hindoo temples, Mr. Maurice has proven beyond all doubt. …
… In my Essay on The Celtic Druids, I have shewn, that a great nation called Celtæ, of
whom the Druids were the priests, spread themselves almost over the whole earth, and
are to be traced in their rude gigantic monuments from India to the extremities of Britain. Who these can have been but the early individuals of the black nation of whom we have been treating I know not, and in this opinion I am not singular. The learned Maurice says, "Cuthites, i. e. Celts, built the great temples in India and Britain, and excavated the caves of the former."* And the learned Mathematician, Reuben Burrow, has no hesitation in pronouncing Stonehenge to be a temple of the black, curly-headed
* Maurice, Hist. Hind. Vol.II p.249.
THE ANCIENT PERSIANS OF THE RELIGION OF ABRAHAM—FIRST BOOKS OF GENESIS— DISINGENUOUS CONDUCT IN THE TRANSLATORY OF THE BIBLE—ABRAHAM ACKNOWLEDGED MORE THAN ONE GOD
Although it may not be possible to make out a connected and complete system, yet it
will be no difficult matter to shew, that, one particular time, the worship of the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Babylonians, was that of one Supreme God; that the Sun was worshipped as an emblem only of the divinity, and that the religions of Abraham, of the children of Israel, and of these Eastern nations were originally the same. …
In the first verse of the first book [Genesis], the ALEIM, which will be proved to be the
Trinity, being in the plural number, are said by Wisdom to have formed, from matter
previously existing, the .ﾁ.: smim, or planetary bodies, which were believed by the Magi
to be the rulers or directors of the affairs of men. This opinion I shall examine by and
by. From this it is evident, that this is in fact a Persian, or still more Eastern, mythos.
…Again, in the first book, man and woman are created at the same time; in the second,
they are created at different times. Again, in the first book, the fruit of ALL the trees is
given to man; in the second, this is contradicted, by one tree being expressly forbidden.
These are in fact two different accounts of the creation.
The beginning of the fifth chapter, or third tract, seems to be a repitition of the first, to
connect it with the history of the flood. The world is described as being made by God,
(Aleim,) and not as in the second by Jehovah or the God Jehovah or Jehovah Aleim;and, as in the first, the man and woman are made at one time, and not, as in the second, at different times. The account of the birth of Seth, given in the twenty-fifth verse of the fourth chapter, and the repetition of the same event in the third verse of the fifth chapter,or the beginning of the third tract, are a clear proof that these tracts are by different persons; or, at least, are separate and distinct works. The reason why the name Seth is given here, and not the names of any of the later Adam's children, is evidently to
connect Adam with Noah and the flood, the object of third tract. The permission, in the third tract, to eat animals implying that it was not given before, is strictly in keeping with the denial of it in the first.
The histories of the creation, both in the first and in the second book of Genesis, in the sacred books of the Persians, and in those of the Chaldeans, are evidently different versions of the same story. The Chaldeans state the world to have been created not in six days, but in six periods of time—the lengths of the periods not being fixed. The Persians, also, divided the time into six periods.
In the second book, a very well-known account is given of the origin of evil, which is an
affair most closely interwoven with every part of the Christian system, but it is in fact
nothing more than an oriental mythos, which may have been taken from the history of
the Brahmins, in whose books the principal incidents are to be found; and, in order to
put this matter out of doubt, it will only be necessary to turn to the plates, to Figs. 2, 3,
4, taken from icons in the very oldest of the caves of Hindostan, excavated, as it is
universally agreed, long prior to the Christian æra. The reader will find the first to be
the seed of the woman bruising the serpent's head; the second, the serpent biting the foot
of her seed, the Hindoo God Cristna, the second person of the trinity; and the third, the
spirit of God brooding over the face of the waters. The history in Genesis is here so
closely depicted that it is impossible to doubt the identity of the two.
Among the Persians and all the oriental nations it has been observed, that the Creator or
God was adored under a triple form—in fact in the form of a trinity. In India, this was
Bramah, Cristna or Vishnu, and Siva; In Persia, it was Oromasdes, Mithra, and Arbimanius; in each case the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destoyer.
The fact that Abraham worshipped several Gods, who were, in reality, the same as those
of the Persians, namely, the creator, preserver, and the destroyer, has been long asserted,
and the assertion has been very unpalatable both to the Jews and many Christians; and
to obviate or disguise what they could not account for, they have had recourse, in numerous instances, to the mistranslation of the original, ...
The doctrine of a plurality, shewn above in the Pentateuch, is confirmed in the later books of the Jews.
ON THE WORD ALEIM OR JEWISH TRINITY—SADDAI ADONIS—
TRINITY OF THE RABBIS—MEANING OF THE WORDS AL AND EL
Perhaps there is no word in any language which has been more written about than the
word Aleim; or as modern Jews corruptly call it, Elohim. But all its difficulties are at
once removed by considering it as a representation of the united Godhead, the Trinity in Unity, the three Persons in one God. …
The meaning of mediator, preserver, or intervener, joined to its character of a noun of
multitude, at once identifies it with the Trinity of the Gentiles. Christians will be
annoyed to find their God called by the same name with that of the Heathen Gods; but
this is only what took place when he was called ﾁ$: Sdi, Saddi, Saddim, or ﾁ"+! adni,
Adonai, or Adonis, (adun, or bol, Baal : so that there is nothing unusual in this.
seems not unlikely that by the different modes of writing the word Baal, a distinction
of sexes should originally have been intended to be expressed. The Heathen divinities,
Ashtaroth and Baal-zebub, were both called Aleim. And the Venus Aphrodite, Urania
etc., were of both genders. TheGod Mithra, the Saviour, was both male and female. …
It appears that in these old books, God is called by names which are sometimes singular,
sometimes plural, sometimes masculine, and sometimes feminine. But though he be
occasionally of each gender, for he must be of the masculine or feminine gender,
because the old language has no neuter; he is not called by any name which conveys the
idea of Goddess or a feminine nature, as separable from himself. My idea is very
abstruse and difficult to explain, he is, in fact, in every case Androgynous; for in no case
which I have produced is a term used exclusively belonging to one sex or the other. He
is never called Baaltes, or Asteroth, or Queen of heaven.
Many Christians no doubt, will be much alarmed and shocked at the idea of the word Ale being of the feminine gender. But why should not the Hebrew language have a feminine to the word -! al, as the English have a feminine to the word God, in Goddess,or the Romans in the words Deus and Dea ? And why should not God be of the feminine gender as easily as of the masculine ? Who knows what gender God is? Who at this day is so foolish as to fancy that God is of any gender ? We have seen that all the Gods of the Gentiles were of both genderss. We find God called Al, Ale, Alue, Alim, and
Aleim—more frequently Aleim than any other name. …
The God Baal was both masculine and feminine, and the God of the Jews was once called Baal. …
The word Aleim . ﾁ%-! has been derived from the Arabic word Allah God, by many learned men; … the Alah, articulo emphatico alalah (Calassio) of the Arabians, is evidently the -! Al of the Chaldees or Jews;
In the first verse of Genesis the word Aleim is found without any particle before it, and,
therefore, ought to be literally translated Gods formed; but in the second chapter of
Exodus and 23rd verse, the emphatic article % e is found, and therefore it ought to be
translated, that "their cry came up to the Gods," or the Aleim. In the same manner the
first verse of the third chapter ought to have the mountains of the Gods, or, of the Aleim,
even to Horeb, instead of the mountains of God. …
Persons who have not given much consideration to these subjects will be apt to wonder
that any people should be found to offer adoration to the evil principle; but they do not
consider that, in all these recondite systems, the evil principle, or the destroyer, or Lord
of Death, was at the same time the regenerator. He could not destroy, but to reproduce.
And it was probably not till this principle began to be forgotten, that the evil being, per
se, arose; for in some nations, this effect seems to have taken place. Thus Baal-Zebub is
in Iberno Celtic, Baal Lord, and Zab Death, Lord of Death; but he is also called Aleim,
the same as the God of the Israelites; and this is right, because he was one of the Trimurti or Trinity.
If I be correct respecting the word Aleim being feminine, we here see the Lord of Death of the feminine gender; but the Goddess Ashtaroth or Astarte, the Eoster of the Germans, was also called Aleim. Here again Aleim is feminine, which shews that I am right in making Aleim the plural feminine. Thus we have distinctly found Aleim the Creator (Gen. i. 1,) Aleim the Preserver, and Aleim the Destroyer, and this not by inference, but literally expressed. We have also the Apis or Bull of Egypt expressly called Aleim, and its plurality admitted on authority not easily disputed. Aaron says, $ﾁ
%-! %-! ale aleik, these are thy Aleim who brought thee out of the land of Egypt.*
* Parkhurst, p.221
… The 26th verse of the first chapter of Genesis completely establishes the plurality of
the word Aleim. And then said Aleim, we will man in OUR image according to our
On the 22nd verse of the third chapter of Genesis, my worthy and excellent old friend,
Dr. A. Geddes, Vicar Apostolic of the Roman See in London, says,* "Lo ! Adam—or
man—is become like one of us. If there be any passage in the Old Testament which
countenances a plurality of persons in the Godhead; or, to speak more properly, a
plurality of Gods, it is this passage. He does not simply say, like us; but like one of us
&1.. $(!,. This can hardly be explained as we have explained %:31 Let us make, and I
confess it has always appeared to me to imply a plurality of Gods, in some sense or
other. It is well known that the Lord or Jehovah, is called in the Hebrew Scriptures, 'The
God of Gods.' He is also represented as a Sovereign sitting on his throne, attended by all
the heavenly host;" in Job called the sons of God. Again he says, "Wherever Jehovah is
present, whether on Sinai or Sion, there he is attended by twenty thousand angels, of the
Cherubic order. When he appeared to Jacob, at Bethel, he was attended by angels, and
again when he wrestled with the same patriarch."
* Crit. Rem. Gen. iii., pp. 48, 49.
The God of the Jews is also known by the name of Adonai ﾁ1+!. But his is nothing but the God of the Syrians, Adonis or the Sun, the worship of whom is reprobated under the name of Tammuz, in Ezekiel viii. 14.
From these examples it is evident that the God of the Jews had several names, and that
these were often the names of Heathen Gods also. All this has a strong tendency to
show that the Jewish and Gentile systems were, at the bottom, the same. Why we call God masculine I know not, nor do I apprehend can any good reason be given. Surely the ancients, who described him as of both genders, or of the doubtful gender, were more reasonable. Here we see that the God of the Jews is called ﾁ+: Sdi,
and that this Sdi is the Dea Multimammia, who is also in other places made to be the
same as the -! al or %-! ale. Therefore, it seems to follow, that the Gods of the Israelites
and of the Gentiles were in the originals the same. And I think by and by my reader will
see evident proof, that the religion of Moses was but a sect of that of the Gentiles; or, if
like it better, that the religion of the Gentiles was but a sect of the religion ofJehovah, Ieue, or of Moses.
Dr. Alix, on Gen. i. 10, says, that the Cabalists constantly added the letter jod, being the
first letter of the word Ieue to the word Aleim for the sake of a mystery. The Rabbi
Bechai says, it is to shew that there is a divinity in each person included in the word.
This is, no doubt, part of the Cabala, or esoteric religion of the Jews. Maimonides says,
the vulgar Jews were forbidden to read the history of the creation, for fear it should lead
them into idolatry; probably for fear they should worship the Trimurti of India, of the
Trinity of Persia. The fear evidently shews, that the fearful persons thought there was a plurality in Genesis.
ESDRAS AND THE ANCIENT JEWISH CABALA—EMANATIONS. what—
MEANING OF THE WORD BERASIT—RAS-- SEPHIROTHS AND EMANATIONS
continued—ORIGIN OF TIME—PLANETS OR SAMIM
As all ancient Heathen nations had their mysteries or secret doctrines, which the priests
carefully kept from the knowledge of the vulgar, and which they only communicated to
a select number of persons whom they thought they could safely trust; and as the Jewish
religion was anciently the same as the Persian, it will not be thought extraordinary, that,
like the Persians, it should have its secret doctrines. So we find it had its Cabala, which,
though guarded like all ancient mysteries, with the most anxious care, and the most
solemn oaths, and what is still worst, almost lost amidst the confusion of civil brawls,
cannot be entirely hidden from the prying curiosity of the Moderns. …
The doctrine here alluded to was a secret one—more perfect, the Jews maintain, than
that delivered in the Pentateuch; and they also maintain, that it was given by God, on
Mount Sinai, to Moses verbally and not written, and that this is the doctrine described in
the fourth book of Esdras, ch. xiv. 6, 26, and 45, thus :
These words shalt thou declare, and these shalt thou hide.And when thou hast done, some things shalt thou publish, and some things shalt thou
shew secretly to the WISE.. . . the Highest spake, saying, The first that thou hast written publish openly, that theworthy and the unworthy may read it : but keep the seventy last, that thou mayest
deliver them only to such as be WISE among the people. For in them is the spring of
understanding, the fountain of WISDOM.
The following passage may serve, at present, as an outline of what was the general nature of the Cabala :
"The similarity, or rather the coincidence, of the Cabalistic, Alexandrian, and Oriental
philosophy, will be sufficiently evinced by briefly stating the common tenets in which
these different systems agreed; they are as follow : All things are derived be emanation from one principle : and this principle is God. From him a substantial power immediately proceeds, which is the image of God, and the source of all subsequent emanations. This second principle sends forth, by the energy of emanation, other natures, which are more or less perfect, according to their different degrees of distance, in the scale of emanation, from the First Source of existence, and which constitute different worlds, or order of beings, all united to the eternal power from which they
proceed, Matter is nothing more than the most remote effect of the emanative energy of
the Deity. The material world receives its form from the immediate agency of powers
far beneath the First Source of being. Evil is the necessary effect of the imperfection of
matter. Human souls are distant emanations from Deity, and after they are liberated
from their material vehicles, will return, through various stages of purification, to the
fountain whence they first proceeded."** Dr. Rees' Encyclopedia, art. Cabala
The ancient Persians believed, that the Supreme Being was surrounded with angels, or
what they called Æons or Emanations, from the divine substance. This was also the
opinion of the Manicheans, and of almost all the Gnostic sects of Christians. …
Perhaps in the languages of the world no two words have been of greater importance
than the first two in the book of Genesis, (:!$ " B-RASIT; (for they are properly two not
one word;) and great difference of opinion has arisen, among learned men, respecting
the meaning of them. Grotius renders them, when first; Simeon, before; Tertullian, in
power; Rabbi Bechai and Castalio, in order before all; Onkelos, the Septuagint,
Johathan ben Uzziel, and the modern translators, in the beginning.
But the official or accredited and admitted authority of the Jewish religion, The
JERUSALEM TARGUM, renders them by WISDOM.
… To the celebrated and learned Beausobre I am indebted for the most important
discovery of the secret doctrine in this word. He says, "The Jews, instead of translating
Berasit by the words in the beginning, translate it by the Principle (par le principe)
active and immediate of all things, God made, &c., that is to say, according to the
Targum of Jerusalem, by WISDOM, (par la sagesse,) God made, &c."*
* Beausobre, Hist. Manich. Liv. vi. Ch. i. p.290.
Beausobre also informs us, Maimonides maintains, that this is the only LITERAL and
TRUE meaning of the word. And Maimonides is generally allowed to have been one of
the most learned of modern Jews. (He lived in the twelfth century.) Beausobre further
says, that CHALCIDIUS, METHODIUS, ORIGEN, and CLEMENS
ALEXANDRINUS, a most formidable phalanx of authorities, give it this sense. …
Beausobre gives us the expression of Clemens, "This is what St. Peter says, who has
very well understood this word : 'God has made the heaven and the earth by the
Principle. (Dieu a fait le Ciel et la Terre dans le Principe.) This principle is that which
is called Wisdom by all the prophets.'" Here is evidently the doctrine of the Magi or of Emanations.
According to the Jewish Cabala a number of Sephiroths, being Emanations, issued or
flowed from God—of which the chief was Wisdom. In Genesis it is said, by Wisdom
God created or formed, &c. Picus, of Miraudula, confirms my rendering, and says,
"This Wisdom is the Son."* Whether the Son or not, this evidently the first emanation,
MINERVA—the Goddess of Wisdom emanating or issuing from the head of Jove, (or
Iao or Jehovah,) as described on a Etruscan brass plate in the Cabinet of Antiquities at
Bologna.** This is known to be Etruscan, from the names being on the arms of the
Gods in Etruscan letters, which prove it older than the Romans, or probably than the
Grecians of Homer.
* Kircher OEd. Egypt. Syntag. II. Cap. vii
** A copy of the plate may be seen at Montfaucon.
M. Basnage says, "Moses Nachmanides advanced three Sephiroths above all the rest;
they have never been seen by any one; there is not any defect in them nor any disunion.
If any one should add another to them, he would deserve death. There is, therefore,
nothing but a dispute about words : you can call three lights what Christians call Father,
Son, and Holy Ghost. That first eternal number is the Father : the WISDOM by which
God created the heavens is the Son : and Prudence or Understanding, which makes the
third number of the Cabalists, is the Christian Holy Ghost."*
* Book iv. Ch. v. Sect. vii.
Wisdom was the first emanation from the Divine power, the protogonos, the beginning
of all things, the Rasit of Genesis, the Buddha of India, the Logos of Plato and St. John,
as I shall prove. Wisdom was the beginning of creation. Wisdom was the primary, and
beginning the secondary, meaning of the word. …
The meaning of wisdom, which the word Ras bore, I can scarcely doubt was, in fact,
secret, sacred, and mystical; and in the course of the following work my reader will
perceive, that wherever a certain mythos, which will be explained, was concerned, two
clear and distinct meanings of the words will be found : one for the initiated, and one
for the people. This is of the first importance to be remembered. …
That the angels are in fact emanations from the Divine substance, according to the
Mosaic system, is proved from Deut. xxxiii. 2. Moses says, according to the Septuagint,
The Lord is come from Sinai : he has appeared to us from Seir : he shineth forth from
Paran with thousands of saints, and having his ANGELS ON HIS RIGHT HAND. But
M. Beausobre* has shewn, (and which Parkhurst, p.149, in voce, confirms,) that
the Hebrew word (+:! asdt, which the Septuagint translates angels, means effusions, that
is, emanations, from the Divine substance. According to Moses and the Seventy
translators, therefore, the Angels were Emanations from the Divine substance. Thus we
see here that the doctrines of the Persians and that of the Jews, and we shall see
afterwards, of the Gnostics and Manichean Christians, were in reality the same.
* Hist. Manich. Liv. ix. Ch. ii.
I think the author of Genesis had more philosophy than to write about the beginning of
the world. I cannot see any reason why so much anxiety should be shewn, by some
modern translators, to construe this word as meaning beginning. I see clearly enough
why others of them should do so, and why the ancient translators did it. They had a
preconceived dogma to support, their partiality to which blinded their judgment, and of
philosophy they did not possess much. However, it cannot be denied that, either in a
primary or secondary sense, the word means wisdom as well as beginning, and,
therefore, its sense here must be gathered from the context.
The two words called in the first chapter of Genesis .ﾁ.:% e-smim, the heavens, ought to
be translated the planets. In that work the sun, and moon, and the earth, are said to be
formed, and also separately from them the samim or planets; and afterward the stars
also. Dr. Parkhurst has very properly explained the word to mean disposers. They are
described in the Chaldean Oracles as a septenary of living beings. By the ancients they
were thought to have, under their special care, the affairs of men. Philo was of the
opinion, and even Maimonides declares, that they are endued with life, knowledge, and
understanding; that they acknowledge and praise their Creator. On this opinion of the
nature of the planets, all judicial astrology, magic, was founded—a science, I believe,
almost as generally held by the ancients, as being of a God is by the moderns.*
* See Faber, Vol. II. p.226.
Persons are apt to regrd with contempt the opinion, that the planetary bodies are
animated or rational beings. But let it not be forgotten that the really great Kepler
believed our globe to be endowed with living faculties; that it possessed instinct and
volition—an hypothesis which Mons. Patrin has supported with great ingenuity.*
Among those who believed that the planets were intelligent beings, were Philo, Origen,
* Vide Jameson's Cuvier, p.45, and Nouveau Dict. d'Histoire Naturelle.
** Faber, Pag. Idol. Vol. I p.32.
The conduct of the Christian expositors, with respect to the words .ﾁ.: smim and (:!$
rasit, has been as unfair as possible. They have misrepresented the meaning of them in
order to prevent the true astrological character of the book from being seen. But, that the
first does mean disposers, the word heavens making nonsense, and the words relating to
the stars, in the 16th verse, shewing that they cannot be meant, put it beyond a question.
My reader may, therefore, form a pretty good judgment how much Parkhurst can be
depended upon for the meaning of the second, from the striking fact that, though he has
filled several columns with observations relating to the opinions of different expositors,
he could not find room for the words, the opinion of the Synagogue is, that the word
means WISDOM, or the Jerusalem Targum says it means WISDOM. But it was
necessary to conceal from the English reader, as already stated, the countenance it gives
to judicial astrology and the doctrine of emanations.
Indeed, I think the doctrine of Emanations in the Jewish system cannot be denied. This
Mr. Maurice unequivocally admits : "The Father is the great fountain of the divinity;
the Son and the Holy Spirit are EMANATIONS from that fountain." Again, "The
Christian Trinity is a Trinity of subsistences, or persons joined by an indissoluble
union."* The reader will be ased to recollect that hypostasis means subsistence,which is a Greek word— …
* Maurice, Ind. Ant. Vol. IV. p.49.
Whatever trifling differences or incongruities may be discovered between them, the following conclusions are inevitable, viz. that the religion of Abraham and that of the Magi, were in reality the same; that they both contained the doctrine of the Trinity; and that the oriental historians who state this fact, state only what is true.
We must also recollect, that when I translate the first word of Genesis by the word
Wisdom, I am giving no new theory of my own, but only the orthodox exposition of the
Jewish religion, as witnessed in the Jerusalem Targum, read in their synagogues,
supported by the authorities of the most eminent of the Jewish Rabbis, Maimonides,
etc., and the most learned of the Christian fathers, Clemens, Origen, &c. All this is of
importance to be remembered, because a great consequence will be deduced from this
word Wisdom. It was, as it were, the foundation on which a mighty structure was erected.
It was by what may be called a peculiar Hypostasis, denominated Wisdom, that the higher principle operated when it formed the world. This is surely quite sufficient to shew its great importance.
Mr. Hastings, one the most early and liberal patrons of Sanscrit literature in India, in a
letter to Nathaniel Smith, Esq., has remarked how accurately many of the leading
principles of the pure, unadulterated doctrines of Bramha correspond with those of the
Christian system. In the Geeta, (one of the most ancient of the Hindoo books,) indeed,
some passages, surprisingly consonant, occur concerning the sublime nature and
attributes of God, as well as concerning the properties and function of the soul. Thus,where the Deity, in the form of Cristna, addresses Arjun : "I am the Creator of all things, and all things proceed from me,"—"I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things; I am time : I am all-grasping death, and I am the resurrection : I am the mystic figure OM ! I am generation and dissolution." Arjun in pious ecstacy exclaims,"Reverence ! reverence ! be unto thee, a thousand times repeated ! again and again reverence ! O thou who art all in all ! infinite in thy power and glory ! Thou art the father of all things animate and inanimate ! there is none like unto thee."*
* Maurice, Ind. Ant.
… The divinity is frequently characterized in that book, as in other Sanscreet
compositions, by the word OM, that mystic emblem of the Deity in India. The ancient
Brahmins, as well as the Buddhists, of India, regarded this word with the same kind of
veneration as the Jews did the word IEUE, which they never pronounced except on
certain very solemn occasions. This is what is meant by the fourth commandment,
which we render, "Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy god" (but which ought
to be Ieue thy God) "in vain." As a pious Jew will not utter the word Ieue, so a pious
Hindoo will not utter the word Om. It is the duty of the Jews and Hindoos to meditate
on the respective words in silence, and with the most profound veneration.
The word Om is always prefixed in pronouncing the words which represent the seven
superior worlds, as if to shew that these seven worlds are manifestations of the power
signified by that word. In an old Purana we find the following passage : "All the rites
ordained in the Vedas, the sacrifices to the fire, and all other solemn purifications, shall
pass away; but that which shall never pass away is the word Om—for it is the symbol of
the Lord of all things." M. Dubois adds, that he thinks it can only mean the true God.
(P.155.)—The sacred monosyllable is generally spelled OM : but, being triliteral, it
seems better expressed by AUM, or AOM or AWM, it being formed of the three
Sanscrit letters that are best so represented. The first letter stands for the Creator, the
second for the Preserver, and the third for the Destroyer.*
* Moore's Pantheon, pp. 414-414.
Sir W. Jones informs us that the names Brahma, Veeshnu, and Seeva, coalesce and form
the mystical word Om, which he says signifies neither more nor less than the solar fire.*Here I apprehend we have the identical word used by the ancient Egyptians and their neighbours for the Sun, Ammon.* Jones, Asiat. Res.
… Hesychius, also Suidas in voce, interprets the word OMF to be Qeia clhdwn, the
sacred voice, the holy sound—and hence arose the omFaloj, or place of Omphe. But its real meaning is still further unravelled by explaining it as OM FH, the enunciation of the mysterious OM of Hindoo theology, the sacred triliteral AUM, but often written as it is pronounced, OM.
… I find the oracle or Divina vox at Delphi called Omphalos, and the word Delphi or
DelFmj means the female generative power; and in front of the temple of Delphi, in fact
constituting a part of the religious edifice, was a large Phallus or Linga, anointed every
day with oil. This, taken all together, shews very clearly that Omphale means the oracle
of the generative (androgynous) power of Om. … The Aum of India, as might well be
expected, is found in Persia, under the name Hom, and particularly in the mountains of
Persia, amongst the Arii, before they are said to have migrated, under Djemchid, to the
South. As usual, we get the North-east, for the origin of things.*
* Creuzer, notes, p.686.
Bacchus was called Omestes, explained the devourer. This is in fact the Om-Esta,* of
Persia. "Ista-char, or Esta-char, is the place or temple of Ista or Esta, who was the Hestia
Latin ista and est, he or she is; it is also Sanscrit, and means the same as the Jah of the
Hebrews. Bacchus, at Chios and Tenedos, was also called Omadius. This is correctly
the God, or the holy Om.
Various derivations are given on the word On, … But I think it only stood for the sun as emblem of the procreative power of nature.
It was from Oenuphis, a priest of On, that Pythagoras is said to have learnt the system of
the heavenly bodies moving round the sun in unceasing revolutions. The priests of this
temple esteemed the first in Egypt.
Anon or 0"ﾁ3 oinn, where John baptized, was called by a figure of speech only Ænon,or the fountain of the sun. The literal meaning was, The Fountain of the Generative Power.
The name of the son of Noah was .( Hm, called Ham. The name of the solar orb was %.(
Hme the feminine of .( Hm. It appears to me that from misapprehension, the Ham of
Noah has been confounded with the Ham, or Hm or Om of Egypt—the Jupiter Ammon
or Amon, the God with the Ram's head, adored at the ƒejon Omane. The word .( Hm,
the patriarch, and the word %.( Hme, the Sun, being the same, were the cause of the
mistake. … I know no reason for believing that the son of Noah was deified—a mere
fancy of modern priests; but I have many reasons for believing that Amon was the Sun
as the generating power, first in Taurus, then in Aries. "Belus, Kronos, Apis, were solar
symbols, and Nonnus ranks Amon with these : … Amon was clearly understood by the
mythologists to represent the Sun in Aries."* Sir W. Drummond has given many other
satisfactory reasons for Amon being the Sun : then how absurd is it to go farther ! All
difficulties are easily explained by attending to the circumstance of the fundamental
doctrine, that, in fact, all the Gods resolve themselves into the Sun, either as God or as
emblem of the Triune Androgynous Being.
* Drum. Orig. B. iv. p.230.
Thus we have several clear and distinct meanings of OmFaloj. It was mitis, begnignus.
It was the male generative power, as Falloj. As Omphale, it was the female generative
power, the wife of Hercules, and the navel of the Earth or Nabbi. It was also the
prophetic voice of the benignant Om. We shall see by and bye how it came to have all
these different meanings. Before we conclude this work, we shall find a similar variety
arising from other names connected with this subject, and in particular it should be
recollected that we have found the Indian Creeshna or Cristna calling himself Om.
… The third person was the Destroyer, or, in his good capacity, the Regenerator. The
dove was the emblem of the Regenerator. When a person was baptized, he was
regenerated or born again. A Dove descended on the head of Jesus at his baptism.
Devotees profess to be born again by the Holy Ghost—Sanctus Spiritus. We read of an
Evil Spirit and of a Holy Spirit; one is the third person in his destroying capacity, the
other in his regenerative capacity. We read in the Acts of the Apostles (ch. xvi. 16) of a
spirit of Python or a Pythonic spirit, an evil spirit. Python, or the spirit of Python, was
the destroyer. But at Delphi he was also Apollo, who was said to be the Sun in Heaven,
Bacchus on Earth, and Apollo in Hell.
M. Dubois has observed, (p.293,) that the Prana or Principle of Life, of the Hindoos, is
the breath of life by which the Creator animated the clay, and man became a living soul.Gen. ii. 7.
The Holy Spirit or Ghost was sometimes masculine, sometimes feminine. As the third
person of the Trinity, it was well known to the ancient Gentiles as to the moderns, as it
will hereafter be shewn.
I believe by almost all the ancients, both Jews and Gentiles, the Supreme Being was
thought to be material, and to consist of a very refined igneous fluid; more like the
galvanic or electric fire than any thing with which I am acquainted. This was also the
opinion of most of the ancient Christian fathers. This was called the anima as feminine,
or spiritus as masculine—and was the (&+ ruh of the second verse of Genesis, which
Parkhurst calls breath or air in motion, (Isaiah xi. 4,) an incorporeal substance, and the
Holy Spirit. From this comes the expression to inspire, or holy inspiration. The word
Ghost means spiritus or anima. This was often confounded with the igneous fluid of
which God was supposed to consist; whence came the baptism by fire and the Holy
Ghost. (Matt. iii. 11.) These were absurd refinements of religious metaphysicians,
which necessarily arose from their attempts to define that of which they had not the
means of forming an idea. I should be as absurd, if I were to attempt to reconcile their
inconsistencies. In the above examples of the different names for the Holy Ghost, a
singular mixture of genders is observable. We see the active principle, fire, the Creator
and the Preserver, and also the Destroyer, identified with the Holy Ghost of the
Christians, in the united form of the Dove and of Fire settling on the apostles. Here we
have most clearly the Holy Ghost identified with the Destroyer, Fire.
… The wife of Jove, the Creator, very naturally bears the name of the female
procreative power, Juno. It is unnecessary to point out the close relation of the passion
of love to the procreative power. There can scarcely be a doubt that the Dove was called
after the Yoni, or the Yoni after the Dove, probably from its salacious qualities. And as
creation was destruction, and the creative the destructive
Mr. Maurice, in his Indian Antiquities, says, "This notion of three persons in the Deity
was diffused amongst all the nations of the earth, established at once in regions so
distant as Japan and Peru, immemorially acknowledged throughout the whole extent of
Egypt and India, and flourishing with equal vigour amidst the snowy mountains of
Thibet, and the vast deserts of Siberia."
If the religions of Moses and the Hindoos were the same, it was reasonable to expect
that we shouldind the celebrated Egyptian festival of the Passover in both countries,
and it is found accordingly. We have in it the most solemn of the religious rites of the
Brahmins, the sacrifice of the Yajna or the Lamb.
… This history of the passage of the sun and of the passage of the Israelites from Egypt,
affords a very remarkable example of the double meaning of the Hebrew books. …
Before the time of Moses, the Egyptians fixed the commencement of the year at the
vernal equinox. … In the Oriental Chronicle it is said, that the day the sun entered into
Aries, was solennis ac celeberrimus apud Ægyptios. But this Ægyptian festival
commenced on the very day when the Paschal lamb was separated. … In this festival
the Israelites marked their door-posts, &c., with blood, the Ægyptians marked their
goods with red.* The Hebrew name was (.5 psh pesach, which means transit. The Lamb
itself is also called Pesech, or the Passover.
* Drum. OEd. Jud. P.380.
In India, the devotees throw red powder on one another at the festival of the Huli or
vernal equinox. This red powder, the Hindoos say, is an imitation of the pollen of
plants, the principle of fructification, the flower of the plant. Here we arrive at the
import of this mystery. A plant which has not this powder, this flower or flour, is
useless; it does not produce seed. This Huli festival is the festival of the vernal equinox;
it is the Yulé; it is the origin of our word holy; it is Julius, Yulius.
The followers of Vishnu observes the custom, on grand occasions, of sacrificing a ram.
This sacrifice was called Yajna; and the fire of the Yajna was called Yajneswara, of the
God fire. The word "Yajna, M. Dubois says (p.316,) is derived from Agni fire, as if itwere to this God that the sacrifice was really offered. I need not point out the resemblance of the word Agni and the Latin Ignis." And I suppose I need not point out the resemblance of the word Agni to the Latin Agnus, to those who have seen the numerous extraordinary coincidences in the languages of Italy and India, which I have shewn in this work and in my Celtic Druids.
In this ceremony of sacrificing the lamb the devotees of India chaunt with a loud voice,
When will it be that the Saviour will be born ! When will it be that the Redeemer will
appear ! The Brahmins, though they eat no flesh on any other occasion, at this sacrifice
taste the flesh of the animal : and the person offering the sacrifice makes a verbal
confession of his sins* and receives absolution.** … The Hindoos have a sacred fire
which never dies, and a sacrifice connected with it, called Oman.*** They have also the
custom of casting out devils from people possessed, by prayers and ceremonies,****
which is also practised by the people of Siam. All this is very important.
The first sentence of the Reg-Veda is said to be Agnim-ile, I sing praise to fire. Here we
are told that Agnim means fire. When we reflect upon the slain lamb, and the call for
the Saviour, we must be struck with the scene in the fifth chapter of the Apocalypse, from verse five to ten, where praise is given to the slain Lamb. The identity of the Mythoses cannot be denied.
… The sacrifice of the Ram is the Ram of the Zodiac at the vernal equinox. Thus the
adoration of the Ram succeeded to the Bull, (but it did not entirely abolish it,) as in the
ase of Asteroth of the Sidonians, which had first the head of a Bull, and afterward that of a Ram.
NAMES OF JESUS AND IAO
I will now submit to my reader some observations, on the origin of the word Jesus, and
the opinions of different learned men both on the word itself, and on various points connected with it. …In the ancient books of the Jews we constantly find mention made of the god Jehovah,
who ought to be called JAH, or IEUE. This God answered to the person whom the
Hindoos designate by the name of Cristna, the second person in their trinity, or their
God the saviour or preserver; and was he whom the Persians designated by the name
Mithra, the second person in their trinity, and also their preserver or saviour; and was he
whom the Romish Christians designate by the name of Jesus, also the second person in
their trinity, and their saviour and preserver. He is called by the Jews the Lord of Hosts,
God of Sabaoth : which means God of the stars and constellations. This name with the
Greeks, Romans, and Gentiles in general, was understood and meant to designate both
the Supreme Being and the Sun, Dominus Sol, the Lord of heaven and the heavenly
The God Iaw, %&%* ieue, IHS, Jehovah, was the son of the celestial virgin, which she
carries in her arms; the $!& aur, Horus, Lux, of the Egyptians;* the Lux of St. John. It
is from this infant that Jesus took his origin; or at least it is from the ceremonies and
worship of this infant, that his religion came to be corrupted into what we have it. …
From the traditionary stories of this god Iao, which feigned annually to be born at the
winter solstice, and to be put to death and raised to life on the third day at the vernal
equinox, the Romish searchers after the evangelion or gospel, made out their Jesus. The
total destruction of every thing at Jerusalem and in Judæa,—buildings, records, every
thing—prevented them from coming to any absolute certainty respecting the person
who, they were told by tradition, had come to preach the gospel of peace, to be their
saviour, in fulfilment of the prophecy which their sect of Israelites found in their
writings, and who had been put to death by the Jews. From all these circumstances he
came to have applied to him the monogram of IHS, the name of IHSouj, and to him at
last all the legendary stories related of the god Iao were attributed. Jesus was commonly
* See Plate 19 of Dupuis, the Celestial Sphere.
Diodorus Siculus says, that Moses pretended to receive his laws from the God called
IAW. This shews that the Greeks considered the name of the Jewish God to be, not
Jehovah, but, as I have stated it, &%* ieu, or Ieo. …
Chiffet, speaking of Iao in his treatise on coins, says, that except the Christians no other
sect or religion has given this name to the divinity. This is unquestionably a very great
mistake. M. Beausobre says,* "Supposing that to be true, it does not follow that these
figures belonged to the Basilidians; they might be from some I know not what Gnostic
sect, which pretended that Iao is the name of an angel. One must allow that it is that of
Jehovah, which the ancients have written and pronounced sometimes Jaho,**
sometimes Jevo,*** and sometimes Iaou.**** But it is necessary also to allow, that Iao is one of the names that the Pagans give to the sun. I have noticed the oracle of Apollo
at Claros, in which Pluto, Jupiter, the sun, and Iao, divide the seasons amongst them.
These four divinities are at bottom the same. …that is to say, Jupiter, Pluto, the Sun,
and Bacchus are the same. …'I declare to you that IAO is the greatest of the Gods.' It
would be doing too much honour to the Demon, if one believed that the god called Iao
is the Jehovah of Scripture, or the true God. This is no other than the sun. …"
* Beaus. Hist. Manich. Vol. II. liv. iv. chap. iv. p.59.
** Euseb. Dem. Ev. Lib. iv. p.129.
*** Euseb. Præp. Evan. Lib. i. x.
**** Clem. Alex. Strom. Lib. v. p.562.
"I doubt not but it is the great name of Jehovah, which they learnt among the Jews : and
that Evòhe Sabòhe is the Jehovah Sabaoth, Lord of Hosts, in the Scripture; whence
Bacchus was called Sabazius likewise. Diodorus Siculus says expressly, the Jews call
God Iao; and the learned universally agree that is Jehovah. Evòhe is but another
awkward way of pronouncing it."*
Stukeley, Pal. Sac. No. 1 p.21.
In innumerable places in Italy very old paintings may be seen of Christ in various
situations, labelled with the words in the middle of the painting, Deo Soli. These words
it is evident have two meanings—To God alone, and To the God Sol. In most cases of
them there are seen the attributes of the latter, such as the glory, &c. The former sense is
in no way applicable to Christ, because as one person of the Trinity he cannot be called
rsolus. These pictures, with their two meanings, shew an example like the first verse of
Genesis, one for the priests, and one for the people—the esoteric and the exoteric
… The pious Dr. Parkhurst, as we have just seen in his Hebrew Lexicon, proves, from
the authority of Diodorus Siculus, Varro, St. Augustin, &c., that the Iao, Jehovah, or my
%&%* ieue, or %* ie of the Jews, was the Jove of the Latins and Etruscans. In the next
page, and in p. 160, under the word --% ell, he allows that this %* ie was the name of
Apollo, over the door of the Temple of Delphi. He then admits that this %&%* ieue
Jehovah is Jesus Christ in the following sentences : "It would be almost endless to quote
all the passages of scripture wherein the name %&%* (ieue) is applied to Christ : let
those, therefore, who own the scriptures as the rule of faith, and yet doubt his essential
deity, only compare in the original scriptures (the passages too numerous to insert),
and I think they cannot miss of a scriptural demonstration that Jesus is Jehovah." But
we have seen it is admitted that Jehovah is Jove, Apollo, Sol, whence it follows that
Jesus is Jove, &c.
The three letters I H S, from the very earliest age of the Romish Christians, have been
adopted for the insignia of their religion. We now very commonly see them
embroidered in golden letters upon the velvet pulpit cloths of the churches in England,
and the clergy say they mean Jesus Hominum Salvator. But it is very remarkable, as I
have observed in B. v. Ch. ii. S. 8, that these three letters, in the Greek language, are the
insignia of Bacchus or the Sun, and stand for the mystical number 608, which is sacred
to him; a pretty striking proof of the identity of the two. …
The followers of Iao, %&%* ieue, constantly sung the word Hallelujah in his praise.
This they did in the temple of Solomon, in the temple of Delphi, and they still continue
the same hallelujahs in the temple at Rome. Dr. Parkhurst says, ".*-&-% elulim
praises,* %*-&-% (elluie) Praise ye Jah— Eng. Marg. Hallelujah : and so the LXX. throughout, leaving it untranslated, Allhl8Ža. It occurs very frequently at the beginning
and end of Psalms. And from this solemn form of praise to God, which, no doubt, was
far prior to the time of David, the ancient Greeks plainly had their similar acclamation
Eleleu Ih (eleleu ie), with which they both began and ended their Pæans or Hymns in
honour of Apollo, i.e. The Light."**
* Lev. xix. 24.** Parkhurst's Lexicon, voc. --%, p.160, ed. 7.
Jesus in the gospels is always called Lord, or in the Greek Kufioj. This is the word by which the Hellenistic Jews, in translating Hebrew into Greek LXX, constantly rendered the word %&%* ieue. The word Kufioj is derived from the word Kurw, to be, exist,
subsist;* and is a very excellent word to use for the Hebrew word %* ie, which has
precisely the same meaning. But this word %* ie, as it has been observed, was the name
given to Apollo or the sun at Delphi, who is always called Kufioj, and the day dedicated
to him cufiach, dies dominica, or the Lord's-day. From some, or from a combination, of
these circumstances, Jesus took the name of Lord, the etymological meaning of which
will be explained hereafter. …
* Parkhurst's Lexicon, voc. %&%, p.155, ed. 7.
… "None dare to enter the temple of Serapis, who did not bear on his breast or
forehead the name Jao or J-ha-ho, a name almost equivalent in sound to that of the Hebrew Jehovah, and probably of identical import; and no name was uttered in Egypt
with more reverence than this of Iao. In the hymn which the hierophant or guardian of
the sanctuary sang to the initiated, this was the first explanation given of the nature of
the Deity : He is one, and by himself, and to him alone do all things owe their existence."
Translation from the German of Schiller
* Monthy Repository, Vol. XX. Pp. 198, 199.
Shuckford says, "The name Jehovah was, I believe, known to be the name of the
Supreme God, in the early ages, in all nations." Again, "Ficinus remarked, that all the
several nations of the world had a name for the Supreme Deity, consisting of four
letters only.* This I think was true at first in a different sense from that which Ficinus
took it : for I question not but they used the very same word, until the languages of
different nations came to have a more entire disagreement than the confusion at Babel
at first caused."**
* The Hebrew word for the God of Abraham consisted merely of vowels, but we have
put three consonants into our translation of it, Jehovah. ** Book ix. pp. 388, 391.
It is thus proved by fair deduction and logical reasoning on unquestionable authority,
that the God %&%* IEUE Jehovah, %* IE or Jah of the Jews, the God EI, the Apollo of
Delphos, The Deus, the Jupiter, Jovis, Jovispiter of the Latins, the god Mithra of the
Persians, and all the gods of the Heathens, are identically the same person or being; not
merely derivatives from one another, but that they are, with only such trifling apparent
differences as may reasonably be expected to arise from the lapse of many ages, and
from the inevitable uncertainty of names translated without any definite rule out of one
language into another, one and the same; and this same being, the sun, or shekinah of
the self-existent Being. In short, that Jehovah was the sun; for if Jehovah was Iao, and
Iao was the sun, Jehovah must be the sun. Dr. Parkhurst admits that Jesus was Jehovah;
but if Jesus was Jehovah, and Jehovah the sun, it follows that Jesus, that is, the Romish
Jesus, but not the Jesus of Nazareth, must be the sun. …
… It cannot be said that these doctrines are merely a chimera, an invention of the
author's own imagination; almost every assertion which he has made is supported by the
authority of some one or other of learned Christian divines who have studied the subject
most carefully. Jesus being mistaken, by the founders of the Roman church, for the god
Sol or the sun may be expected to be found in their religion. In the following part of this
work it will be shewn that that which may be expected to be found, is really found; and
that most of the rites and doctrines of modern Christianity are nothing more than the
rites and doctrines of the old religion, collected by devotees of very weak and mean
understandings, and applied either to the real, or to an imaginary personage. Which of
these two is the truth, it will be the final object of this work to determine
THE DOVE OF THE ASSYRIANS—BLACK JEWS—MEGASTHENES'
ACCOUNT OF THE JEWS—SOLUYMI OR SOLOMONS—JUDAISM SHEWN
BY EUSEBIUS TO BE OLDER THAN ABRAHAM—HELLENISM—JEWISH
MYTHOS IN NUBIA AND INDIA—HIGH PLACES
We have seen that the dove is, in a peculiar manner, the emblem of the Ioni. With this
we find the Jews at almost perpetual war. The Assyrians are constantly described in the
Jewish books by the term sword of the oppressor. In several places where we find this it
ought to be rendered by the term the sword of the Dove.* This was the emblem, or crest,
or coat of arms carried by the followers of the imaginary, or at least mystical,
Semiranis, who was said to have been born at or near the Philistine Iona,—of the
Semirama-isi of India, of whom I shall presently treat. See Col. Wilford's essay on
Semiranis.** Persons may have different opinions as to the cause of the Dove, or Capot-
Eswari becoming the emblem of the female generative power, as also of the Holy spirit the third person of the Trinity, but the fact cannot be disputed.
* Jer. xxv. 38, xlvi. 16; Hosea xi. 11; Zeph. iii. 1.
** Asiat. Res. Vol. IV. pp. 370, &c.
The Chaldeans, or Chasdim, or Culdees, were priests of the Assyrians, and worshipers
of the Dove or female generative power, whence they called their sacred isle of the
West Iona or Columba, that is, the female dove, not the male or Columbus. …
The Rev. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, I believe a missionary, some years ago published
Travels in India, in which he states, that he found no less than sixty-five settlements of
BLACK Jews in different parts of the peninsula.* … These black Jews are remnants of
the sect of the Iadus, who, Col. Wilford informs us, yet remain in Guzerat. I apprehend
they were part of the sect of the Linga, who would not unite with, or divided from, the
followers of the female principle, the Argha or Ioni, or from those of the double
principle, and, on that account, were persecuted or expelled, and from them came the
tribe of Abram or the Brahmin. … And this seems to rationally to account for the places
in Syria being called by names of places in India. We know how almost all emigrants
have given the names of the countries of their births, to their new habitations.
* Christ. Res. p.226, Ed. 1819.
From the accounts given by Dr. Buchanan of the black tribes, some of them having
Pentateuchs, and others not having them; and of those who have them, having obtained
them from the white tribes, it seem probable that they are indebted for them solely to the
white tribes. This will exactly agree, as might be expected, with my theory, if it should
turn out to be true; because the apoicoj or going out of the tribe of Judi or Ioudi fromIndia, in all probability, must have taken place before Moses lived, and before he partly
wrote, and partly compiled or collected, the tracts into what we now call the Pentateuch.
In all probability the first books of Genesis were brought from India with the tribe—
with Abraham or the Brahmins.
Eusebius, in his Chronicon, says, that Ethiopians coming from the Indus or black river
settles near Egypt. There seems to be nothing improbable in these Ethiopians being the
tribe of the Jews—the tribe of Jacob or Israel. I think these Ethiopians did come under
Jacob, and did settle in Goshen, and gave the names of Maturea and Avaris to the city in
which they dwelt. Avari in Hebrew would be as often written *9"3 obri, or the city of the Hebrews or Foreigners.
Megasthenes, who was sent to India by Seleucus Nicator, about three hundred years before Christ, and whose accounts from new inquiries are every day acquiring additional credit,* in a very remarkable manner confirms my hypothesis of the Jews'coming from India. He says, That they were an Indian tribe or sect called Kalani, and that their theology has a great resemblance to that of the Indians.**
* Vide Lempriere's Calss. Dict. ed. 1828.
** Volney's Researches, Anc. Hist. Vol. II. p.395.
Aristotle gave an account of the Jews that they came from the Indian philosophers, and that they were called by the Indians Calami, and by the Syrians Judæi.* I think few persons will doubt that the Calami here are the Calani of Megasthenes, one of the two being miscalled. We have seen a Calani in Ceylon, where we found a Zion, Adam's foot, Mount Ararat, and Columbo, &c., and In Gen. x. 10, and Amos. vi. 2, a Calneh or Calani is also named.
Gale* has observed, that the information of Megasthenes is confirmed by Clearchus, the Peripathetic. …
* Court of Gt. Vol. II. p.75.
Respecting Megasthenes, Col. Wilford says, "Megasthenes, a man of no ordinary abilities, who had spent the greatest part of his life in India, in a public character, and was well acquainted with the chronological systems of the Egyptians, Chaldeans and
Jews,* made particular inquiries into their history, and declared, according to Clement
of Alexandria, that the Hindoos and Jews were the only people who had a true idea of
the creation of the world, and the beginning of things."** … And they have an obvious
tendency to support my theory of the origin of the Jewish tribe.
* See Asiat. Res. Vol. V. p.290 ** Ibid. Vol. X. p.118.
If I had desired to invent a piece of evidence in confirmation of what I have said respecting the emigration of the Israelitish tribe from India to Syria, I could not have had any thing better than the following passage from Col. Wilford. The Zohar Manassé,which the reader will find named, cannot, in this case, be disputed as evidence of the ancient, probably the secret or esoteric, opinion of the Jews. The seven earths one above another is a circumstance so totally inapplicable to Jerusalem, and so clearly Hindoo,that the identity of the two cannot de mistaken.
Wilford says, "Meru with its three peaks on the summit, and its seven steps, includes
and encompasses really the whole world, according to the notions of the Hindoos and
other nations, previously to their being acquainted with the globular shape of the earth. I
mentioned in the first part that the Jews were acquainted with the seven stages, Zones or
Dwipas of the Hindus : but I have since discovered a curious passage from the Zohar
Manassé on the creation, as cited by Basnage in his history of the Jews.* 'There are,'
says the author, 'seven earths, whereof one is higher than the other, for Judæa is situated
upon the highest earth, and Jerusalem upon the highest mountain of Judæa.' This hill of
God, so often mentioned in the Old Testament, the mount of the congregation where the
mighty king sits in the sides of the north, according to Isaiah, and there is the city of our
God. The Meru of the Hindus has the name of Sabka, or the congregation, and the Gods
are seated upon it in the sides of the north. There is the holy city of Brahma-puri, where
resides Brahma with his court, in the most pure and holy land of Ilavratta."** The
Judæa or Ioud-ia and Jerusalem named above, are evidently compared to the North-pole
and Mount Meru, which is thus called the place of Ioudi. We shall presently find that,
with the Arabians, the Pole-star was called the star of Ioudi.
* Eng. Trans. p.247.
** Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.128, Vol. VIII. 285; 2 Chron. iii. 1, Isaiah xiv. 13, Psalm xlviii.
"The Persians had a title, Soliman, equivalent to the Greek Aioloj, and implying universal cosmocrator, qu'ils ont cru posséder l'empire universel de toute la terre, and
Thamurath aspired to this rank; but the divine Argeng, in whose gallery were the statues
of seventy-two Solimans, contended with him for the supremacy. This Argeng was the
head of the league of Afgeioi, and the number 72, is that of the kings subject to the king
* See Herbelot in voce Soliman; Nimrod, Vol. III. p.12.
The history of Solomon bears a very mythological appearance, which is much
confirmed by a passage in Strabo,* who asserts, that both Syria and Phoenicia had their
names from India. He says, speaking of the irruption of the Greeks and Seleucidæ, into
India, "These same Greeks subjugated the country as far as the territory of the Syri and
Phanni." Casaubon supposed the Phannon of Strabo to mean Phoinicon, and so
corrected it.** This shews that there were nations of these names in India, which could
not be very far from the peninsula of Swarastrene or Syrastrene :*** or perhaps Rajahpoutana or Afghanistan.
* Vol. IV. ** Asiat. Soc. Vol. I. p.335. *** Ibid. 336.
The word Rajahpoutan, I think, is Rajah-pout-tana, or three words which mean the
country of the royal Buddha—Pout being one of the names of Buddha. That Rajah is
royal I shall shew by and by. Of Afghan I can make nothing; but in the travels of Ibn Batuta there is a place mentioned, near Delhi, called Afghanpoor.
Mr. Franklin says, "Another striking instance is recorded by the very intelligent
traveller (Wilson) regarding a representation of the fall of our first parents, sculptured
in the magnificent temple of Ipsambul in Nubia. He says that a very exact
representation of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden is to be seen in that cave, and
that the serpent climbing the tree is especially delineated, and the whole subject of the
tempting of our first parents most accurately exhibited."* How is the fact of the Mythos
of the second book of Genesis being found in Nubia, probably a thousand miles above
Heliopolis, to be accounted for, except that it came from Upper India with the first
Buddhists or Gymnosophists ? There they were found by Clemens Alexandrinus, and
there they found a Meru, now called Meroe. The same Mythos is found in India. Col.
Tod says, "A drawing, brought by Colonel Coombs, from a sculptured column in a
cave-temple in the South of India, represents the first pair at the foot of the ambrosial
tree, and a serpent entwined among the heavy-laden boughs, presenting to them some
of the fruit from his mouth. The tempter appears to be at that part of his discourse,when,……… his words, replete with guile,Into her heart too easy entrance won :Fixed on the fruit she gazed.'
"This is a curious subject to be engraved on an ancient Pagan temple : if Jain or
Buddhist, the interest would be considerably enhanced."** … The same mythos, as the
Romish Dr. Geddes calls Genesis, is at the bottom of the religions of Moses, India, and
Egypt, with such small variations only as time and circumstance may be expected to produce. …
*On Buddhists and Jeynes, p.127, Note. ** Tod's Hist. Raj. P.581.
Throughout all the ancient world the distinction between the followers of the Yoni and
Linga may be seen. All nations seem to have been Ionians except the Jews and Persians;
and, as the Jewish or male principle prevailed, the other declined.
RAJPOUTS. RANNÆ OF PTOLEMY—INDIAN CHRONOLOGY—AJIMERE—MOUNT SION—SION AND ILIEROSOLYMA
—VARIOUS MOUNTS OF SOLYMA : TEMPLES OF SOLOMON—JERUSALEM : JESULMER—MEANING OF JERUSALEM—TEMPLE OF SOLOMON IN CASHMERE
We will now examine the names of some of the states and cities in India, and in them I
think we shall find conclusive proofs of the place where Judaism came from, and
probably along with it the first written language.
In India, in very ancient times, there was a state of great power. Its capital was in lat.
26º 48' N., 82º 4' E., of prodigious extent, being one of the largest in Hindostan,
anciently called Ayodhya or Oude. It was, and yet is, a place celebrated for its sanctity,
to which Pilgrims resort from all parts of India. The Hindoo history states that it was the
seat of power, of a great prince called Dasaratha, the father of Rama, and of Rama, the
brother of Cristna. Dasaratha extended his conquests as far as Ceylon, which he
subdued. … Ayodhia or Iyodhya is nothing but Judia, and Oude, Juda. Iyodhia is Iyodi-
ia—country of the sacred Iou, or Jud. …
I feel little doubt that the tribe of Iaoud was expelled from this kingdom, perhaps from
Maturea, from which place they took their names. Every difficulty will be removed if we suppose that the religious wars of the sects of the Ioni and Linga were long, and had alternate success; and this perfectly agrees with the Hindoo histories, which represent the wars to have been long, and of this description. The cities above-named are situated little Westward of Tibet. The tribe of Ioud or the Brahmin Abraham, was expelled from or left the Maturea of the kingdom of Oude in India, and, settling at Goshen, or the house of the Sun or Heliopolis in Egypt, gave it the name of the place which they had left in India, Maturea. …… Thus we shall connect Maturea, Judah, and Abraham together, and, as I have suggested, the doctrines of Cristna or the Lamb.
Abraham came from Mesopotamia of the Chaldees.* This precisely answers to the
situation of Mutra or Maturea on the Jumna. It is the country of the ancient kingdom of
Oude between the two rivers Ganges and Indus, and is called Duab or Mesopotamia, as
I have before stated. He probably came just before the change of the worship took place,from Taurus to Aries, from Buddha to Cristna.
I beg my reader to refer to the Map which is taken partly from those of Bishop Heber
and Col. Tod, and he will find the kingdom of Oude, anciently Ayodhia, in a district
called Agra, in which is a city, called anciently Argha* or Agra. It was in ruins in the
time of Akbar—and was rebuilt by him and called Akberabad.** He will also find a
place called Daoud-nagur, that is Dud (9&9 dud) or David-nagur. Nagur means fort or
walled town. There is also a district called Daod-potra, that is, town of the sons of
David. Thus we have a city of David and country of the children or sons of David.
** A district of Jerusalem was called Acra : this must have been Arga, as it is not likely
that this city should have a quarter called by a Greek name.
The river Chelum, or Jalum, or Jhylun, or Behut, or Jenaut* has on its West side the
country of the Joudis, at the foot of the mountains of Joud. There is also a place or
district in this country called Seba or Siba. There is also a tribe called Jajoohahs, which
descended from the Joudis. Here are the Jews, descended from Judah. In the mountains
of Solomon are found a tribe of people called Judoons,** (that is, Judæans,) and a place
called Gosa, (that is, Gaza,) and a people called Jadrauns, and another called Jaujees
(Jews).*** The mountains of Solomon, or Solimaun, have this name in the old books,
though they are not commonly known at this time by it. These mountains are higher
than the Andes. One of the mounts of the chain is called Suffaid Coh. The Sofees of
Persia are called Suffrarees. In this country, also, is the city of Enoch, the Anuchta of
* Rennell, p.98. ** Elphins, Vol. II. p.99. *** Ib.
Col. Tod says,* the tradition of the Hindoos assert that India was first peopled or
colonized by a race called Yadu, to which they trace the foundations of the most
conspicuous of their ancient cities.** The Yadus are in the unpolished dialect
pronounced Jadu or Jadoons. The Eusofzyes, or tribe of Joseph, is also called Jadoons,
that is, Judæans.
* Trans. Royal Asiat. Soc. Vol. III. pp. 1, 141.
** For a sketch of this race see An. Rajastan, Vol. I. p.85.
… The notice of Rannæ, by Ptolemy, shews that the tribe was in existence before the
dispersion of the Jews in the time of Vespasian. In the attempt to discover the truth in
questions of this kind, it is very seldom that a proof of a fact can be obtained, but I think
it is obtained respecting the RANNÆ of Oudipore. They were evidently here in the time
of Ptolemy, and they are yet remaining. There can be no shadow of pretence to set up
that they have been destroyed by the Mohamedans, and the city of Oude or Oudi-pore
built by Mohamedans, and since that time a new tribe of Rannæ set up. The city of
Gagasmera or Ajimere confirms this. The city of Oudepore is very large, and carries on
the face of it marks of extreme antiquity. …
In lat. 26, 31 N. long. 74, 28 E., is the city called Ajimere or Gazamere, the Gazamera
of Ptolemy adjoining to a large lake. Here is Gaza, of Syria, and the old English word
mere for a lake. …
Col. Tod explains the word Jerusalem to mean Mer-Jesul or Hill of Jessul. The double
meaning of the word Mer arises from all these sacred mounts being imitative Merus.
Thus they might be all called Mer. Meru, we must recollect, was a hill in a sea, or
surrounded by an oceanus. …
About lat. 27 N. and long. 71 E. on Col. Tod's map will be found the place called
JESULMER. I learnt from the Colonel's work, that it is a place of very great antiquity,
and in a peculiar manner sacred among the Buddhists. In one of the temples is a very
large library, and in the centre of it, suspended by a chain of gold in a golden case, is a
most sacred, holy manuscript, which is expressly forbidden to be read or even looked
upon. It is believed that any person reading it would be instantly struck blind. … and
now I beg my reader to transpose the letters of this word Jesulmer, and he will find they
make Jeruselm. Take this by itself and the fact would be of little consequence, but
couple it with all the other circumstances—with the names of the other towns which I
have pointed out, and I defy the unprejudiced reader to divest his mind of a strong
suspicion, that the Jerusalem of the West is the Jesulmer of the East, or vice versa.*
Jesulmer changed into Jeruselm, is nothing but an example of the practice called
Themeru or changing, of the tribe of Ioudi of writing words in the way called
* A little to the south of Jesulmer, about lat. 26, is a town called Iunah, the old name of
** Ency. Britt. Voce Anagram.
The meaning of Jeru-salem is the sacred ladder, .-. slm in Hebrew; !/-&. sulma inChaldee. …
… And when I consider the form of Meru, step above step, the Madré Solyman of
Persia, and the rendering of the word .-. slm in the LXX. by cl…max, and in the Vulgate by scala, and the same word .-. slm used for Jacob's ladder, seen at Bit-al or the house
of God, on which seventy-two angels ascended and descended, I suspect that the Hiero,
%9* ire means sacred, the sacred ladder, or the sacred mount. It is what the Greeks
called Olympus. The Bit-al, Bethel, or house of God, which Jacob's place of the ladder
was called, is not unlike the Tectum of the Solymi. We must also remember that
Solomon, an incarnation of wisdom, is closely connected with the wisdom of the
But of all the temples of Solomon, I consider none of more importance than the Tact
Solomon or Tecte Soleiman, which is found in Cashmere. "Mr. Forster was so much
struck with the general appearance, garb, and manners, of the Cashmerians, as to think
he had suddenly been transported among a nation of Jews."* The same idea was
impressed upon the mind of Mons. Bernier, on his visiting that country. This
Cashmerian temple of Solomon will be found of great consequence. Father Georgius,
who was master of the Tibetian language, quotes the story of Anobret from
Sanchoniathon, and shews that the Jeud of Sanchoniathon is the Jid of the Tibetians. Jid
a Tibetanis Butta tributum. 9*%* ieid Jehid Isaaci epithetum est, Gen. xxii. 2; et Jid
Tibetanorum idem ac Jehid Phoenicium et Egyptium.** Thus we have the mount or
house or habitation of Solomon or Solyma in India, or the country of Ioud, or of Daudpoutri,
or of the sons of David; in Persia, the Madré Solyma, and the same also in
Palestine and in Asia Minor; and all, in some way or other, connected with the tribe of
Ioudi. Can any one believe all this to be the effect of accident ? Solomon was a
personification or incarnation of wisdom, and the Jews, of Asia Minor were a tribe or
colony from India, of black Buddhists, at or about the same time with the Ioudi to Syria,
under the Brahmin.
* Vol. II. p.21.
In I Pet. v. 13, Rome is alluded to under the name of Babylon. This is very much
perplexed the Luthers and Calvins, who were not initiated in the Roman religion. But
this was the mystic name of Rome, as is proved from a passage in the Sibylline Oracle,
Lib. iii., where Rome is most clearly designated by the word Babylon. Very truly has
Nimrod said,* that the Sibylline Oracles as Gnostic performances.
* Vol. I. pp. 228, 388.
Thus we have Rome called Babylon, and Babylon called Rome. We have a city of
Rama and an island of Rama in India : and a point Romania.* We have in Phrygia
Mount Ararat noticed by the Sibyl, and a Roma, &c., and a country of Roum; and, to
complete all, we have in each, for rulers, Cæsars or Kesari. Can any one doubt a
common mythos ? And it may have been any of these Romes to which the Erythræan
Sibyl in her prophecy alluded. Rome was Babylon. And Babylon was the city of the
Dove, and Lanca or Ye-lanka** or Ceylon was the island of Rama, (in which were
Ararat and Adam's foot-mark,) the capital of which is Columbo. …* Hamilton's Gaz. p.184. ** Called Yelanki by Wilson.
Creuzer says that Rome was called an Olympus,* and in their ceremonies they chanted
Tri-omphe, Triomphe—that is, the triple Omphe.
Parkhurst* says, "The personality in Jehovah is in Scripture represented by the material
Trinity of Nature : which also, like their divine antitype, are of one substance; that the
primary scriptural type of the Father is fire : of the Word light : and of the Holy Ghost,
Spirit, or Air in motion." This material Trinity as a type is similar to the material trinity
of Plato—as a type to conceal the secret Trinity.
* In voce "9, krb, II.
I suppose the Shepherd Kings who conquered Egypt were Rajpouts or Buddhists, of the
country of the Rajahi Bedoueens, from Rajah-stan. The Israelites as well as the Royal
shepherds, were both, in fact, Arab tribes—tribes also from Arab-ia on the Indus. From
Rajah, and Pout or Buddha, came the name of the country of the Raja Pouts, or the
Royal Buddhists, for Pout was a name of Buddha. The inhabitants of that country were
Palli or Shepherds. They were Royal Shepherds or Raja-Pout Shepherds. They came
from a country called Arabia; and as they crossed the Western Arabia in their route to
the Abyssinian Ethiopia, when forced forwards by succeeding tribes, they left behind
them, to the peninsula, the name of Arabia, which it still possesses. … From the belief
that persons were incarnations of the solar ethereal fire, came the glories, as they are
called, (or, as the learned priest Taylor has called them, clarys,) round the heads, and
sometimes round the body, of incarnated persons. We are so used to see this solar glory
in pictures, that we think it of no consequence; but a careful examination of the meaning
of the word Glory will shew that it is correctly what I have described. The sycophants of
Augustus Cæsar said, that his glory dazzled them when they looked upon him. I suspect
the Raj %!9 rae has not only an intimate connexion with the (9 rh, spirit, but with the :!
9 ras, wisdom.* Generally, when Divine Wisdom or the Logos made itself visible to
man, it was in the form of fire or a ray of light.
* Vide Parkhurst.
In India there were eight Vasus. These were Jesuses or incarnations of the Holy Spirit,
one for each cycle. In the early part of the Jewish Gospel they fade away, and are not
visible : but Osee, the son of Nun, was one, preceded by Moses, or M-Oseh, as Cristna
was by Ram. Elisha was one, preceded by Elijah. The Vasus, the Muses, and the
Jesuses, were all, or had all, so far the same signification as to mean one of the persons
of the Trinity,—Triune God—three in one, and one in three; and they all meant Saviour.
The title Pharaoh is probably a compound of the word Phre, and roh—Raj, Roi, Rex.*
In Hebrew %39 roe means shepherd. The shepherds of Egypt, I have shewn, were
Rajahpoutans. They also bore the name of Palli and %39 roe. From a union of all these
circumstances they became Royal Shepherds.
* Drummond, Pun. Ins. P.51.
In Isaiah Cyrus is called !-5 pla, in our book translated wonderful. This is the holy Pala,
or Palladium, of the Greeks, which the Romans got from Troy or Ter-ia. It is Pallas or
Minerva; it was an idol which descended from heaven; it was, I believe, a black stone, a
Cornu Ammonis, like that in Westminster Abbey, on which our kings are crowned. It
was the emblem of Minerva or Wisdom. It was the King's-bench on which he sat. It was
the origin of the Polis or gate, in which the judge or king sat to administer justice.
Mordecai sat in the king's gate. From this came the seat of the king, or his residence, to
be called Pala-ce. It was the same as with the Sopha or the Divan of the Eastern nations.
Divan is Div-ania place of the Divus. Sopha is EoF-ia, place of Wisdom. Divan is also
divustania, Divus-stau-ia, place of the holy stone, softened, like Casmillus into
Camillus, Pelasgus into Pelagus, &c., &c. … But soph also means wool, and from this
double meaning came the sopha of wool. The Pallas of the Greeks is the !-5 pla of
Isaiah ix. 6, mistranslated, as already noticed, wonderful, to conceal the Gnosticism; for
it is evident from the Greek Pallas, that it ought to be wisdom. … As !-5 ple, it means
intercessor between God and man. The Palla-dium shews that the sigma is only the Greek termination.
… The possessors of Pallas were possessors of divine wisdom, and the possessors of
divine wisdom were possessors of salvation. Thus the city possessing the talismanic
diu-Palla was safe. All the hero Gods Theseus, Bacchus, Æsculapius, &c., were
saviours and black saviours too. These black icons were made when man himself was
black. He made his God after himself, and then said that man was made after the image
I suppose I need scarcely remind my reader that Jupiter was Iao, &%* ieu. But
Hesychius says, the Hellenes were named after Jupiter, who was Hellen.* He afterward
says, that his countrymen were Hellenes, in respect of certain Wisdom, … We all know
how Constantine was connected with Helena. He understood the secret doctrine of
WISDOM or Hellenism : for this reason, as I have intimated, he probably called his
metropolitan church St. Sophia. And from this we see that Hellenism was the doctrine
of Wisdom. Eusebius has formerly told us, that Hellenism came in with Serug, which
shews its great antiquity. Constantine was a Hellenist and a Gnostic, or follower of
Wisdom, and also of Crhj. Cæsar, the descendant of Venus, was the same, with his liber
or book, the emblem of Wisdom, in his hand. I have no doubt that the use of letters was
for many generations secret, sacred, and cabalistic, and used only in the mythos and the
* Nimrod, Vol. I. p.468.
Gengis Khan was considered a prophet; the Turkish emperors called Khans, are also considered to be prophets. This is the Tibetian superstition; hence the Khans or Tartary.* Guichart derives Khan from 0%, ken, in Greek cohj.** From this he derives Diaconus.
* Sandy's Travels, p.37. ** Parkhurst, in voce 0%, ken.
If Constantine were an incarnation of Divine Wisdom in the fourth century, Attila, the
Scythian and the Hun, and a Khan of Tartary, was the same in the fifth. He professed to
be the owner of the sword God Acinaces, a kind of Palladium, which entitled him to the
sovereignty of the universe. … He called his capital in the West the city of Buda,
Buddha, Babylonia, and Susa.* … Attila died in his 124th year, almost the age of a
Nestor. It is probable that he was held out to be a renewed incarnation of Odin. The
Buddhist doctrines cannot be denied. By means of the Homeridæ or Bards, such as
Damascius, patronized by him, I feel little doubt that the ancient Scandinavian
mythology was in fact renovated, and probably embellished, and thus handed down to
us, which would otherwise have been lost. I think it not at all unlikely that this hardy old
warrior should have been induced, by the flatteries of his bards, really to believe himself
the promised one, the desire of all nations; and I think it not unlikely also, that some
superstitious fear prevented him from seizing the holy and eternal city, when it was
really in his power. This seems to be the opinion of Nimrod. The renewal of the ancient superstition by Attila and afterward by Theodoric, may satisfactorily account for many
parts of the otherwise fading mythoses of antiquity being found in colours at first sight
unaccountably brilliant in the Northern climes. Our historians erroneously suppose all these mythoses to have been invented by learned monks in the middle ages, and thus dismiss them without examination.
* Wilkina Saga, Cap. ccclxxiv. p.505, ib. Cap. lxiii. p.134, Cap. ccclxxvii. p.494;
Nimrod, Vol. I. p.475.
MORALS AND DOGMA by ALBERT PIKE (A freemason handbook explaining their symbols and rituals)
Every Lodge is a Temple, and as a whole, and in its details symbolic. The Universe itself
supplied man with the model for the first temples reared to the Divinity. The arrangement
of the Temple of Solomon, the symbolic ornaments which formed its chief decorations,
and the dress of the High-Priest, all had reference to the order of the Universe, as then
understood. The Temple contained many emblems of the seasons--the sun, the moon,
the planets, the constellations Ursa Major and Minor, the zodiac, the elements, and the
other parts of the world. It is the Master of this Lodge, of the Universe, Hermes, of whom
Khurum is the representative, that is one of the lights of the Lodge.
For further instruction as to the symbolism of the heavenly bodies, and of the sacred
numbers, and of the temple and its details, you must wait patiently until you advance in
Masonry, in the mean time exercising your intellect in studying them for yourself. To
study and seek to interpret correctly the symbols of the Universe, is the work of the sage
and philosopher. It is to decipher the writing of God, and penetrate into His thoughts.
The ancients counted seven planets, thus arranged: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun,
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. There were seven heavens and seven spheres of these planets; on all the monuments of Mithras are seven altars or pyres, consecrated to the
seven planets, as were the seven lamps of the golden candelabrum in the Temple. That
these represented the planets, we are assured by Clemens of Alexandria, in his Stromata, and by Philo Judaeus.
To return to its source in the Infinite, the human soul, the ancients held, had to ascend,
as it had descended, through the seven spheres. The Ladder by which it reascends, has,
according to Marsilius Ficinus, in his Commentary on the Ennead of Plotinus, seven
degrees or steps; and in the Mysteries of Mithras, carried to Rome under the Emperors,
the ladder, with its seven rounds, was a symbol referring to this ascent through the
spheres of the seven planets. Jacob saw the Spirits of God ascending and descending
on it; and above it the Deity Himself. The Mithraic Mysteries were celebrated in caves,
where gates were marked at the four equinoctial and solstitial points of the Zodiac; and
the seven planetary spheres were represented, which souls needs must traverse in
descending from the heaven of the fixed stars to the elements that envelop the earth; and seven gates were marked, one for each planet, through which they pass, in descending or returning.
We learn this from Celsus, in Origen, who says that the symbolic image of this passage
among the stars, used in the Mithraic Mysteries, was a ladder reaching from earth to
Heaven, divided into seven steps or stages, to each of which was a gate, and at the
summit an eighth one, that of the fixed stars. The symbol was the same as that of the
seven stages of Borsippa, the Pyramid of vitrified brick, near Babylon, built of seven
stages, and each of a different colour. In the Mithraic ceremonies, the candidate went
through seven stages of initiation, passing through many fearful trials--and of these the high ladder with seven rounds or steps was the symbol.
The Sun is the ancient symbol of the life-giving and generative power of the Deity. To the
ancients, light was the cause of life; and God was the source from which all light flowed;
the essence of Light, the Invisible Fire, developed as Flame manifested as light and
splendour. The Sun was His manifestation and visible image; and the Sabaeans
worshipping the Light--God, seemed to worship the Sun, in whom they saw the manifestation of the Deity.
The Moon was the symbol of the passive capacity of nature to produce, the female, of
which the life-giving power and energy was the male. It was the symbol of Isis, Astarte,
and Artemis, or Diana. The "Master of Life" was the Supreme Deity, above both, and
manifested through both; Zeus, the Son of Saturn, become King of the Gods; Horus, son
of Osiris and Isis, become the Master of Life; Dionusos or Bacchus, like Mithras, become
the author of Light and Life and Truth.
The Sun and Moon," says the learned Bro.'. DELAUNAY, "represent the two grand
principles of all generations, the active and passive, the male and the female. The Sun
represents the actual light. He pours upon the Moon his fecundating rays; both shed their
light upon their offspring, the Blazing Star, or HORUS, and the three form the great Equilateral Triangle, in the centre of which is the omnific letter of the Kabalah, by which creation is said to have been effected."
To find in the BLAZING STAR of five points an allusion to the Divine Providence, is also
fanciful; and to make it commemorative of the Star that is said to have guided the Magi,
is to give it a meaning comparatively modern. Originally it represented SIRIUS, or the
Dog-star, the forerunner of the inundation of the Nile; the God ANUBIS, companion of
ISIS in her search for the body of OSIRIS, her brother and husband. Then it became the
image of HORUS, the son of OSIRIS, himself symbolized also by the Sun, the author of
the Seasons, and the God of Time; Son of ISIS, who was the universal nature, himself
the primitive matter, inexhaustible source of Life, spark of uncreated fire, universal seed
of all beings. It was HERMES, also, the Master of Learning, whose name in Greek is that
of the God Mercury. It became the sacred and potent sign or character of the Magi, the
PENTALPHA, and is the significant emblem of Liberty and Freedom, blazing with a
steady radiance amid the weltering elements of good and evil of Revolutions, and
promising serene skies and fertile seasons to the nations, after the storms of change and tumult.
In the East of the Lodge, over the Master, inclosed in a triangle, is the Hebrew letter
YOD. In the English and American Lodges the Letter G.'. is substituted for this, as the
initial of the word GOD, with as little reason as if the letter D., initial of DIEU, were used
in French Lodges instead of the proper letter. YOD is, in the Kabalah, the symbol of
Unity, of the Supreme Deity, the first letter of the Holy Name; and also a symbol of the
Great Kabalistic Triads. To understand its mystic meanings, you must open the pages of the Sohar and Siphra de Zeniutha, and other kabalistic books, and ponder deeply on their meaning. It must suffice to say, that it is the Creative Energy of the Deity, is represented as a point, and that point in the centre of the Circle of immensity. It is to us in this Degree, the symbol of that unmanifested Deity, the Absolute, who has no name.Our French Brethren place this letter YOD in the centre of the Blazing Star. And in the old Lectures, our ancient English Brethren said, "The Blazing Star or Glory in the centre
refers us to that grand luminary, the Sun, which enlightens the earth, and by its genial
influence dispenses blessings to mankind." They called it also in the same lectures, an
emblem of PRUDENCE. The word Prudentia means, in its original and fullest
signification, Foresight; and, accordingly, the Blazing Star has been regarded as an
emblem of Omniscience, or the All-seeing Eye, which to the Egyptian Initiates was the
emblem of Osiris, the Creator. With the YOD in the centre, it has the kabalistic meaning
of the Divine Energy, manifested as Light, creating the Universe.
At the sphere of the Sun, you are in the region of LIGHT. * * * * The Hebrew word for
gold, ZAHAB, also means Light, of which the Sun is to the Earth the great source. So, in
the great Oriental allegory of the Hebrews, the River PISON compasses the land of Gold
or Light; and the River GIHON the land of Ethiopia or Darkness.What light is, we no more know than the ancients did. According to the modern hypothesis, it is not composed of luminous particles shot out from the sun with immense velocity; but that body only impresses, on the ether which fills all space, a powerful vibratory movement that extends, in the form of luminous waves, beyond the most distant planets, supplying them with light and heat. To the ancients, it was an outflowing from the
Deity. To us, as to them, it is the apt symbol of truth and knowledge. To us, also, the
upward journey of the soul through the Spheres is symbolical; but we are as little
informed as they whence the soul comes, where it has its origin, and whither it goes after
death. They endeavored to have some belief and faith, some creed, upon those points.
At the present day, men are satisfied to think nothing in regard to all that, and only to
believe that the soul is a something separate from the body and out-living it, but whether
existing before it, neither to inquire nor care. No one asks whether it emanates from the
Deity, or is created out of nothing, or is generated like the body, and the issue of the
souls of the father and the mother. Let us not smile, therefore, at the ideas of the
ancients, until we have a better belief; but accept their symbols as meaning that the soul
is of a Divine nature, originating in a sphere nearer the Deity, and returning to that when
freed from the enthralhment of the body; and that it can only return there when purified of all the sordidness and sin which have, as it were, become part of its substance, by its connection with the body.
It is not strange that, thousands of years ago, men worshipped the Sun, and that to-day
that worship continues among the Parsees. Originally they looked beyond the orb to the
invisible God, of whom the Sun's light, seemingly identical with generation and life, was
the manifestation and outflowing. Long before the Chaldcean shepherds watched it on
their plains, it came up regularly, as it now does, in the morning, like a god, and again
sank, like a king retiring, in the west, to return again in due time in the same array of
majesty. We worship Immutability. It was that steadfast, immutable character of the Sun
that the men of Baalbec worshipped. His light-giving and life-giving powers were
secondary attributes. The one grand idea that compelled worship was the characteristic
of God which they saw reflected in his light, and fancied they saw in its originality the
changelessness of Deity. He had seen thrones crwnble, earthquakes shake the world
and hurl down mountains. Beyond Olympus, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, he had gone
daily to his abode, and had come daily again in the morning to behold the temples they
built to his worsl1ip. They personified him as BRAHMA, AMUN, OSRIS, BEL, ADONIS,
MALKARTH, MITHRAS, and APOLLO; and the nations that did so grew old and died.
Moss grew on the capitals of the great columns of his temples, and he shone on the
moss. Grain by grain the dust of his temples crumbled and fell, and was borne off on the
wind, and still he shone on crumbling column and architrave. The roof fell crashing on the
pavement, and he shone in on the Holy of Holies with unchanging rays. It was not
strange that men worshipped the Sun.
There is a water-plant, on whose broad leaves the drops of water roll about without uniting, like drops of mercury. So arguments on points of faith, in politics or religion, roll
over the surface of the mind. An argument that convinces one mind has no effect on
another. Few intellects, or souls that are the negations of intellect, have any logical
power or capacity. There is a singular obliquity in the human mind that makes the false
logic more effective than the true with nine-tenths of those who are regarded as men of
intellect. Even among the judges, not one in ten can argue logically. Each mind sees the
truth, distorted through its own medium. Truth, to most men, is like matter in the
spheroidal state. Like a drop of cold water on the surface of a red-hot metal plate, it
dances, trembles, and spins, and never comes into contact with it; and the mind may be
plunged into truth, as the hand moistened with sulphurous acid may into melted metal,and be not even warmed by the immersion.
The word Khairum or Khurum is a compound one. Gesenius renders Khurum by the
word noble or free-born: Khur meaning white, noble. It also means the opening of a
window, the socket of the eye. Khri also means white, or an opening; and Khris, the orb
of the Sun, in Job viii. 13 and x. 7. Krishna is the Hindu Sun-God. Khur, the Parsi word, is
the literal name of the Sun.From Kur or Khur, the Sun, comes Khora, a name of Lower Egypt. The Sun, Bryant says in his Mythology, was called Kur; and Plutarch says that the Persians called the Sun
Kuros. Kurios, Lord, in Greek, like Adonai, Lord, in Phcenician and Hebrew, was applied
to the Sun. Many places were sacred to the Sun, and called Kura, Kuria, Kuropolis,
Kurene, Kureschata, Kuresta, and Corusia in Scythia.
The Egyptian Deity called by the Greeks "Horus," was Her-Ra, or Har-oeris, Hor or Har,
the Sun. Hari is a Hindu name of the Sun. Ari-al, Ar-es, Ar, Aryaman, Areimonios, the AR
meaning Fire or Flame, are of the same kindred. Hewnes or Har-mes, (Aram, Remus,
Haram, Harameias), was Kadmos, the Divine Light or Wisdom. Mar-kuri, says Movers, is
Mar, the Sun.
In the Hebrew, AOOR, is Light, Fire, or the Sun. Cyrus, said Ctesias, was so named from
Kuros, the Sun. Kuris, Hesychius says, was Adonis. Apollo, the Sun-god, was called
Kurraios, from Kurra, a city in Phocis. The people of Kurene, originally Ethiopians or
Cuthites, worshipped the Sun under the title of Achoor and Achor.
We know, through a precise testimony in the ancient annals of Tsur, that the principal
festivity of Mal-karth, the incarnation of the Sun at the Winter Solstice, held at Tsur, was
called his rebirth or his awakening, and that it was celebrated by means of a pyre, on
which the god was supposed to regain, through the aid of fire, a new life. This festival
was celebrated in the month Peritius (Barith), the second day of which corresponded to
the 25th of December. KHUR-UM, King of Tyre, Movers says, first performed this
ceremony. These facts we learn from Josephus, Servius on the AEneid, and the
Dionysiacs of Nonnus; and through a coincidence that cannot be fortuitous, the same
day was at Rome the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the festal day of the invincible Sun. Under
this title, HERCULES, HAR-acles, was worshipped at Tsur. Thus, while the temple was being erected, the death and resurrection of a Sun-God was annually represented at
Tsur, by Solomon's ally, at the winter solstice, by the pyre of MAL-KARIH, the Tsurian
AROERIS or HAR-oeris, the elder HORUS, is from the same old root that in the Hebrew
has the form Aur, or, with the definite article prefixed, Haur, Light, or the Light, splendor,
flame, the Sun and his rays. The hieroglyphic of the younger HORUS was the point in a
circle; of the Elder, a pair of eyes; and the festival of the thirtieth day of the month Epiphi,
when the sun and moon were supposed to be in the same right line with the earth, was
called "The birth-day of the eyes of Horus."
In a papyrus published by Champollion, this god is styled "Haroeri, Lord of the Solar
Spirits, the beneficent eye of the Sun." Plutarch calls him "Har-pocrates," but there is no
trace of the latter part of the name in the hieroglyphic legends. He is the son of OSIRIS
and Isrs; and is represented sitting on a throne supported by lions; the same word, in
Egyptian, meaning Lion and Sun. So Solomon made a great throne of ivory, plated with
gold, with six steps, at each arm of which was a lion, and one on each side to each step,
making seven on each side.
Again, the Hebrewword Khi, means "living;" and ram, "was, or shall be, raised or lifted
up." The latter is the same as room, aroom, harum, whence Aram, for Syria, or Aramoea,
High-land. Khairum, therefore, would mean "was raised up to life, or living."
So, in Arabic, hrm, an unused root, meant, "was high," "made great," "exalted;" and Hirm
means an ox, the symbol of the Sun in Taurus, at the Vernal Equinox.
KHURUM, therefore, improperly called Hiram, is KHUR-OM, the same as Her-ra, Hermes,
and Her-acles, the "Heracles Tyrius Invictus," the personification of Light and the
Son, the Mediator, Redeemer, and Saviour. From the Egyptian word Ra came the Coptic
Ouro, and the Hebrew Aur, Light. Har-oeri, is Hor or Har, the chief or master. Hor is also
heat; and hora, season or hour; and hence in several African dialects, as names of the
Sun, Airo, Ayero, eer, uiro, ghurrah, and the like. The royal name rendered Pharaoh, was
PHRA, that is, Pai-ra, the Sun.
The legend of the contest between Hor-ra and Set, or Set-nu-bi, the same as Bar or Bal,
is older than that of the strife between Osiris and Typhon; as old, at least, as the
nineteenth dynasty. It is called in the Book of the Dead, "The day of the battle between
Horus and Set." The later myth connects itself with Phoenicia and Syria. The body of
OSIRIS went ashore at Gebal or Byblos, sixty miles above Tsur. You will not fail to notice
that in the name of each murderer of Khurum, that of the Evil God Bal is found.Har-oeri was the god of TIME, as well as of Life.
THE SECRET TEACHINGS of ALL AGES - MANLY P HALL
THE SUN, A UNIVERSAL DEITY
THE adoration of the sun was one of the earliest and most natural forms of religious expression. Complex modern theologies are merely involvements and amplifications of this simple aboriginal belief. The primitive mind, recognizing the beneficent power of the solar orb, adored it as the proxy of the Supreme Deity. Concerning the origin of sun worship, Albert Pike makes the following concise statement in his Morals and Dogma: "To them [aboriginal peoples] he [the sun] was the innate fire of bodies, the fire of Nature. Author of Life, heat, and ignition, he was to them the efficient cause of all generation, for without him there was no movement, no existence, no form. He was to them immense, indivisible, imperishable, and everywhere present. It was their need of light, and of his creative energy, that was felt by all men; and nothing was more fearful to them than his absence. His beneficent influences caused his identification with the Principle of Good; and the BRAHMA of the Hindus, and MITHRAS of the Persians, and ATHOM, AMUN, PHTHA, and OSIRIS, of the Egyptians, the BEL of the Chaldeans, the ADONAI of the Phœnicians, the ADONIS and APOLLO of the Greeks, became but personifications of the Sun, the regenerating Principle, image of that fecundity which perpetuates and rejuvenates the world's existence."
Among all the nations of antiquity, altars, mounds, and temples were dedicated to the worship of the orb of day. The ruins of these sacred places yet remain, notable among them being the pyramids of Yucatan and Egypt, the snake mounds of the American Indians, the Zikkurats of Babylon and Chaldea, the round towers of Ireland, and the massive rings of uncut stone in Britain and Normandy. The Tower of Babel, which, according to the Scriptures, was built so that man might reach up to God, was probably an astronomical observatory.
Many early priests and prophets, both pagan and Christian, were versed in astronomy and astrology; their writings are best understood when read in the light of these ancient sciences. With the growth of man's knowledge of the constitution and periodicity of the heavenly bodies, astronomical principles and terminology were introduced into his religious systems. The tutelary gods were given planetary thrones, the celestial bodies being named after the deities assigned to them. The fixed stars were divided into constellations, and through these constellations wandered the sun and its planets, the latter with their accompanying satellites.
THE SOLAR TRINITY
The sun, as supreme among the celestial bodies visible to the astronomers of antiquity, was assigned to the highest of the gods and became symbolic of the supreme authority of the Creator Himself. From a deep philosophic consideration of the powers and principles of the sun has come the concept of the Trinity as it is understood in the world today. The tenet of a Triune Divinity is not peculiar to Christian or Mosaic theology, but forms a conspicuous part of the dogma of the greatest religions of both ancient and modern times. The Persians, Hindus, Babylonians, and Egyptians had their Trinities. In every instance these represented the threefold form of one Supreme Intelligence. In modern Masonry, the Deity is symbolized by an equilateral triangle, its three sides representing the primary manifestations of the Eternal One who is Himself represented as a tiny flame, called by the Hebrews Yod (י). Jakob Böhme, the Teutonic mystic, calls the Trinity The Three Witnesses, by means of which the Invisible is made known to the visible, tangible universe.
The origin of the Trinity is obvious to anyone who will observe the daily manifestations of the sun. This orb, being the symbol of all Light, has three distinct phases: rising, midday, and setting. The philosophers therefore divided the life of all things into three distinct parts: growth, maturity, and decay. Between the twilight of dawn and the twilight of evening is the high noon of resplendent glory. God the Father, the Creator of the world, is symbolized by the dawn. His color is blue, because the sun rising in the morning is veiled in blue mist. God the Son he Illuminating One sent to bear witness of His Father before all the worlds, is the celestial globe at noonday, radiant and magnificent, the maned Lion of Judah, the Golden-haired Savior of the World. Yellow is His color and His power is without end. God the Holy Ghost is the sunset phase, when the orb of day, robed in flaming red, rests for a moment upon the horizon line and then vanishes into the darkness of the night to wandering the lower worlds and later rise again triumphant from the embrace of darkness.
To the Egyptians the sun was the symbol of immortality, for, while it died each night, it rose again with each ensuing dawn. Not only has the sun this diurnal activity, but it also has its annual pilgrimage, during which time it passes successively through the twelve celestial houses of the heavens, remaining in each for thirty days. Added to these it has a third path of travel, which is called the precession of the equinoxes, in which it retrogrades around the zodiac through the twelve signs at the rate of one degree every seventy-two years.
Concerning the annual passage of the sun through the twelve houses of the heavens, Robert Hewitt Brown, 32°, makes the following statement: "The Sun, as he pursued his way among these 'living creatures' of the zodiac, was said, in allegorical language, either to assume the nature of or to triumph over the sign he entered. The sun thus became a Bull in Taurus, and was worshipped as such by the Egyptians under the name of Apis, and by the Assyrians as Bel, Baal, or Bul. In Leo the sun became a Lion-slayer, Hercules, and an Archer in Sagittarius. In Pisces, the Fishes, he was a fish--Dagon, or Vishnu, the fish-god of the Philistines and Hindoos."
A careful analysis of the religious systems of pagandom uncovers much evidence of the fact that its priests served the solar energy and that their Supreme Deity was in every case this Divine Light personified. Godfrey Higgins, after thirty years of inquiry into the origin of religious beliefs, is of the opinion that "All the Gods of antiquity resolved themselves into the solar fire, sometimes itself as God, or sometimes an emblem or shekinah of that higher principle, known by the name of the creative Being or God."
The Egyptian priests in many of their ceremonies wore the skins of lions, which were symbols of the solar orb, owing to the fact that the sun is exalted, dignified, and most fortunately placed in the constellation of Leo, which he rules and which was at one time the keystone of the celestial arch.
The sun rising over the back of the lion or, astrologically, in the back of the lion, has always been
considered symbolic of power and rulership. A symbol very similar to the one above appears on the flag ofPersia, whose people have always been sun worshipers. Kings and emperors have frequently associated their terrestrial power with the celestial Power of the solar orb, and have accepted the sun, or one of its symbolic beasts or birds, as their emblem. Witness the lion of the Great Mogul and the eagles of C.sar andNapoleon.
Again, Hercules is the Solar Deity, for as this mighty hunter performed his twelve labors, so the sun, in traversing the twelve houses of the zodiacal band, performs during his pilgrimage twelve essential and benevolent labors for the human race and for Nature in general, Hercules, like the Egyptian priests, wore the skin of a lion for a girdle. Samson, the Hebrew hero, as his name implies, is also a solar deity. His fight with the Nubian lion, his battles with the Philistines, who represent the Powers of Darkness, and his memorable feat of carrying off the gates of Gaza, all refer to aspects of solar activity. Many of the ancient peoples had more than one solar deity; in fact, all of the gods and goddesses were supposed to partake, in part at least, of the sun's effulgence.
The golden ornaments used by the priestcraft of the various world religions are again a subtle reference to the solar energy, as are also the crowns of kings. In ancient times, crowns had a number of points extending outward like the rays of the sun, but modern conventionalism has, in many cases, either removed the points or else bent: them inward, gathered them together, and placed an orb or cross upon the point where they meet. Many of the ancient prophets, philosophers, and dignitaries carried a scepter, the upper end of which bore a representation of the solar globe surrounded by emanating rays. All the kingdoms of earth were but copies of the kingdoms of Heaven, and the kingdoms of Heaven were best symbolized by the solar kingdom, in which the sun was the supreme ruler, the planets his privy council, and all Nature the subjects of his empire.
Many deities have been associated with the sun. The Greeks believed that Apollo, Bacchus, Dionysos, Sabazius, Hercules, Jason, Ulysses, Zeus, Uranus, and Vulcan partook of either the visible or invisible attributes of the sun. The Norwegians regarded Balder the Beautiful as a solar deity, and Odin is often connected with the celestial orb, especially because of his one eye. Among the Egyptians, Osiris, Ra, Anubis, Hermes, and even the mysterious Ammon himself had points of resemblance with the solar disc. Isis was the mother of the sun, and even Typhon, the Destroyer, was supposed to be a form of solar energy. The Egyptian sun myth finally centered around the person of a mysterious deity called Serapis. The two Central American deities, Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, while often associated with the winds, were also undoubtedly solar gods.
In Masonry the sun has many symbols. One expression of the solar energy is Solomon, whose name SOL-OM-ON is the name for the Supreme Light in three different languages. Hiram Abiff, the CHiram (Hiram) of the Chaldees, is also a solar deity, and the story of his attack and murder by the Ruffians, with its solar interpretation, will be found in the chapter The Hiramic Legend. A striking example of the important part which the sun plays in the symbols and rituals of Freemasonry is given by George Oliver, D.D., in his Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry, as follows:
"The sun rises in the east, and in the east is the place for the Worshipful Master. As the sun is the source of all light and warmth, so should the Worshipful Master enliven and warm the brethren to their work. Among the ancient Egyptians the sun was the symbol of divine providence." The hierophants of the Mysteries were adorned with many. insignia emblematic of solar power. The sunbursts of gilt embroidery on the back of the vestments of the Catholic priesthood signify that the priest is also an emissary and representative of Sol Invictus.
CHRISTIANITY AND THE SUN
For reasons which they doubtless considered sufficient, those who chronicled the life and acts of Jesus found it advisable to metamorphose him into a solar deity. The historical Jesus was forgotten; nearly all the salient incidents recorded in the four Gospels have their correlations in the movements, phases, or functions of the heavenly bodies.
Among other allegories borrowed by Christianity from pagan antiquity is the story of the beautiful, blue-eyed Sun God, with His golden hair falling upon His shoulders, robed from head to foot in spotless white and carrying in His arms the Lamb of God, symbolic of the vernal equinox. This handsome youth is a composite of Apollo, Osiris, Orpheus, Mithras, and Bacchus, for He has certain characteristics in common with each of these pagan deities.
The philosophers of Greece and Egypt divided the life of the sun during the year into four parts; therefore they symbolized the Solar Man by four different figures. When He was born in the winter solstice, the Sun God was symbolized as a dependent infant who in some mysterious manner had managed to escape the Powers of Darkness seeking to destroy Him while He was still in the cradle of winter. The sun, being weak at this season of the year, had no golden rays (or locks of hair), but the survival of the light through the darkness of winter was symbolized by one tiny hair which alone adorned the head of the Celestial Child. (As the birth of the sun took place in Capricorn, it was often represented as being suckled by a goat.)
At the vernal equinox, the sun had grown to be a beautiful youth. His golden hair hung in ringlets on his shoulders and his light, as Schiller said, extended to all parts of infinity. At the summer solstice, the sun became a strong man, heavily bearded, who, in the prime of maturity, symbolized the fact that Nature at this period of the year is strongest and most fecund. At the autumnal equinox, the sun was pictured as an aged man, shuffling along with bended back and whitened locks into the oblivion of winter darkness. Thus, twelve months were assigned to the sun as the length of its life. During this period it circled the twelve signs of the zodiac in a magnificent triumphal march. When fall came, it entered, like Samson, into the house of Delilah (Virgo), where its rays were cut off and it lost its strength. In Masonry, the cruel winter months are symbolized by three murderers who sought to destroy the God of Light and Truth.
The coming of the sun was hailed with joy; the time of its departure was viewed as a period to be set aside for sorrow and unhappiness. This glorious, radiant orb of day, the true light "which lighteth every man who cometh into the world," the supreme benefactor, who raised all things from the dead, who fed the hungry multitudes, who stilled the tempest, who after dying rose again and restored all things to life--this Supreme Spirit of humanitarianism and philanthropy is known to Christendom as Christ, the Redeemer of worlds, the Only Begotten of The Father, the Word made Flesh, and the Hope of Glory.
THE BIRTHDAY OF THE SUN
The pagans set aside the 25th of December as the birthday of the Solar Man. They rejoiced, feasted, gathered in processions, and made offerings in the temples. The darkness of winter was over and the glorious son of light was returning to the Northern Hemisphere. With his last effort the old Sun God had torn down the house of the Philistines (the Spirits of Darkness) and had cleared the way for the new sun who was born that day from the depths of the earth amidst the symbolic beasts of the lower world.
Concerning this season of celebration, an anonymous Master of Arts of Balliol College, Oxford, in his scholarly treatise, Mankind Their Origin and Destiny, says: "The Romans also had their solar festival, and their games of the circus in honor of the birth of the god of day. It took place the eighth day before the kalends of January--that is, on December 25. Servius, in his commentary on verse 720 of the seventh book of the Æneid, in which Virgil speaks of the new sun, says that, properly speaking, the sun is new on the 8th of the Kalends of January-that is, December 25. In the time of Leo I. (Leo, Serm. xxi., De Nativ. Dom. p. 148), some of the Fathers of the Church said that 'what rendered the festival (of Christmas) venerable was less the birth of Jesus Christ than the return, and, as they expressed it, the new birth of the sun.' It was on the same day that the birth of the Invincible Sun (Natalis solis invicti), was celebrated at Rome, as can be seen in the Roman calendars, published in the reign of Constantine and of Julian (Hymn to the Sun, p. 155). This epithet 'Invictus' is the same as the Persians gave to this same god, whom they worshipped by the name of Mithra, and whom they caused to be born in a grotto (Justin. Dial. cum Trips. p. 305), just as he is represented as being born in a stable, under the name of Christ, by the Christians."
Concerning the Catholic Feast of the Assumption and its parallel in astronomy, the same author adds: "At the end of eight months, when the sun-god, having increased, traverses the eighth sign, he absorbs the celestial Virgin in his fiery course, and she disappears in the midst of the luminous rays and the glory of her son. This phenomenon, which takes place every year about the middle of August, gave rise to a festival which still exists, and in which it is supposed that the mother of Christ, laying aside her earthly life, is associated with the glory of her son, and is placed at his side in the heavens. The Roman calendar of Columella (Col. 1. II. cap. ii. p. 429) marks the death or disappearance of Virgo at this period. The sun, he says, passes into Virgo on the thirteenth day before the kalends of September. This is where the Catholics place the Feast of the Assumption, or the reunion of the Virgin to her Son. This feast was formerly called the feast of the Passage of the Virgin (Beausobre, tome i. p. 350); and in the Library of the Fathers (Bibl. Part. vol. II. part ii. p. 212) we have an account of the Passage of the Blessed Virgin. The ancient Greeks and Romans fix the assumption of Astraea, who is also this same Virgin, on that day."
This Virgin mother, giving birth to the Sun God which Christianity has so faithfully preserved, is a reminder of the inscription concerning her Egyptian prototype, Isis, which appeared on the Temple of Sais: "The fruit which I have brought forth is the Sun." While the Virgin was associated with the moon by the early pagans, there is no doubt that they also understood her position as a constellation in the heavens, for nearly all the peoples of antiquity credit her as being the mother of the sun, and they realized that although the moon could not occupy that position, the sign of Virgo could, and did, give birth to the sun out of her side on the 25th day of December. Albertus Magnus states, "We know that the sign of the Celestial Virgin rose over the Horizon at the moment at which we fix the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Among certain of the Arabian and Persian astronomers the three stars forming the sword belt of Orion were called the Magi who came to pay homage to the young Sun God. The author of Mankind--Their Origin and Destiny contributes the following additional information: "In Cancer, which had risen to the meridian at midnight, is the constellation of the Stable and of the Ass. The ancients called it Præsepe Jovis. In the north the stars of the Bear are seen, called by the Arabians Martha and Mary, and also the coffin of Lazarus. "Thus the esotericism of pagandom was embodied in Christianity, although its keys are lost. The Christian church blindly follows ancient customs, and when asked for a reason gives superficial and unsatisfactory explanations, either forgetting or ignoring the indisputable fact that each religion is based upon the secret doctrines of its predecessor.
THE ZODIAC AND ITS SIGNS (Leo)
The sun is often symbolized with its rays in the form of a shaggy mane. Concerning the
Masonic significance of Leo, Robert Hewitt Brown, 32°, has written: "On the 21st of
June, when the sun arrives at the summer solstice, the constellation Leo--being but 30° in
advance of the sun--appears to be leading the way, and to aid by his powerful paw in
lifting the sun up to the summit of the zodiacal arch. * * * This visible connection
between the constellation Leo and the return of the sun to his place of power and glory, at
the summit of the Royal Arch of heaven, was the principal reason why that constellation
was held in such high esteem and reverence by the ancients. The astrologers
distinguished Leo as the 'sole house of the sun,' and taught that the world was created
when the sun was in that sign. 'The lion was adored in the East and the West by the
Egyptians and the Mexicans. The chief Druid of Britain was styled a lion.'" (Stellar
Theology and Masonic Astronomy.) When the Aquarian Age is thoroughly established,
the sun will be in Leo, as will be noted from the explanation previously given in this
chapter regarding the distinction between geocentric and heliocentric astrology. Then,
indeed, will the secret religions of the world include once more the raising to initiation by
the Grip of the Lion's Paw. (Lazarus will come forth.)
FISHES, INSECTS, ANIMALS, REPTILES AND BIRDS PART ONE
THE creatures inhabiting the water, air, and earth were held in veneration by all races of
antiquity. Realizing that visible bodies are only symbols of invisible forces, the ancients
worshiped the Divine Power through the lower kingdoms of Nature, because those less
evolved and more simply constituted creatures responded most readily to the creative
impulses of the gods. The sages of old studied living things to a point of realization that
God is most perfectly understood through a knowledge of His supreme handiwork--
animate and inanimate Nature.
Every existing creature manifests some aspect of the intelligence or power of the Eternal
One, who can never be known save through a study and appreciation of His numbered
but inconceivable parts. When a creature is chosen, therefore, to symbolize to the
concrete human mind some concealed abstract principle it is because its characteristics
demonstrate this invisible principle in visible action. Fishes, insects, animals, reptiles, and
birds appear in the religious symbolism of nearly all nations, because the forms and
habits of these creatures and the media in which they exist closely relate them to the
various generative and germinative powers of Nature, which were considered as primafaie evidence of divine omnipresence.
The early philosophers and scientists, realizing that all life has its origin in water, chose
the fish as the symbol of the life germ. The fact that fishes are most prolific makes the
simile still more apt. While the early priests may not have possessed the instruments
necessary to analyze the spermatozoon, they concluded by deduction that it resembled a
Fishes were sacred to the Greeks and Romans, being connected with the worship of
Aphrodite (Venus). An interesting survival of pagan ritualism is found in the custom of
eating fish on Friday. Freya, in whose honor the day was named, was the Scandinavian
Venus, and this day was sacred among many nations to the goddess of beauty and
fecundity. This analogy further links the fish with the procreative mystery. Friday is also
sacred to the followers of the Prophet Mohammed.
The word nun means both fish and growth, and as Inman says: "The Jews were led to
victory by the Son of the Fish whose other names were Joshua and Jesus (the Savior).
Nun is still the name of a female devotee" of the Christian faith. Among early Christians
three fishes were used to symbolize the Trinity, and the fish is also one of the eight sacred
symbols of the great Buddha. It is also significant that the dolphin should be sacred to
both Apollo (the Solar Savior) and Neptune. It was believed that this fish carried
shipwrecked sailors to heaven on its back. The dolphin was accepted by the early
Christians as an emblem of Christ, because the pagans had viewed this beautiful creature
as a friend and benefactor of man. The heir to the throne of France, the Dauphin, may
have secured his title from this ancient pagan symbol of the divine preservative power.
The first advocates of Christianity likened converts to fishes, who at the time of baptism
"returned again into the sea of Christ."
Primitive peoples believed the sea and land were inhabited by strange creatures, and early
books on zoology contain curious illustrations of composite beasts, reptiles, and fishes,
which did not exist at the time the medi.val authors compiled these voluminous books.
In the ancient initiatory rituals of the Persian, Greek, and Egyptian Mysteries the priests
disguised themselves as composite creatures, thereby symbolizing different aspects of
human consciousness. They used birds and reptiles as emblems of their various deities,
often creating forms of grotesque appearance and assigning to them imaginary traits,
habits, and places of domicile, all of which were symbolic of certain spiritual and
transcendental truths thus concealed from the profane.
The phoenix made its nest of incense and flames. The unicorn had the body of a horse, the feet of an elephant, and the tail of a wild boar. The upper half of the centaur's body was human and the lower half equine. The pelican of the Hermetists fed its young from its own breast, and to this bird
were assigned other mysterious attributes which could have been true only allegorically.
Though regarded by many writers of the Middle Ages as actual living creatures, none of
these--the pelican excepted--ever existed outside the symbolism of the Mysteries.
Possibly they originated in rumors of animals then little known. In the temple, however,
they became a reality, for there they signified the manifold characteristics of man's
nature. The mantichora had certain points in common with the hyena; the unicorn may
have been the single-horned rhinoceros. To the student of the secret wisdom these composite animals. and birds simply represent various forces working in the invisible worlds. This is a point which nearly all writers on the subject of medi.val monsters seem
to have overlooked. (See Vlyssis Aldrovandi's Monstrorum Historia, 1642, and Physica
Curiosa, by P. Gaspare Schotto, 1697.)
There are also legends to the effect that long before the appearance of human beings there
existed a race or species of composite creatures which was destroyed by the gods. The
temples of antiquity preserved their own historical records and possessed information
concerning the prehistoric world that has never been revealed to the uninitiated.
According to these records, the human race evolved from a species of creature that
partook somewhat of the nature of an amphibian, for at that time primitive man had the
gills of a fish and was partly covered with scales. To a limited degree, the human embryo
demonstrates the possibility of such a condition. As a result of the theory of man's origin
in water, the fish was looked upon as the progenitor of the human family. This gave rise
to the ichthyolatry of the Chaldeans, Phoenicians, and Brahmins. The American Indians
believe that the waters of lakes, rivers, and oceans are inhabited by a mysterious people,
the "Water Indians."
The fish has been used as an emblem of damnation; but among the Chinese it typified contentment and good fortune, and fishes appear on many of their coins. When Typhon,
or Set, the Egyptian evil genius, had divided the body of the god Osiris into fourteen
parts, he cast one part into the river Nile, where, according to Plutarch, it was devoured
by three fishes--the lepidotus (probably the lepidosiren), the phagrus, and the oxyrynchus
(a form of pike). For this reason the Egyptians would not eat the flesh of these fishes,
believing that to do so would be to devour the body of their god. When used as a symbol
of evil, the fish represented the earth (man's lower nature) and the tomb (the sepulcher of
the Mysteries). Thus was Jonah three days in the belly of the "great fish," as Christ was
three days in the tomb.
Several early church fathers believed that the "whale" which swallowed Jonah was the
symbol of God the Father, who, when the hapless prophet was thrown overboard,
accepted Jonah into His own nature until a place of safety was reached. The story of
Jonah is really a legend of initiation into the Mysteries, and the "great fish" represents the
darkness of ignorance which engulfs man when he is thrown over the side of the ship (is
born) into the sea (life). The custom of building ships in the form of fishes or birds,
common in ancient times, could give rise to the story, and mayhap Jonah was merely
picked up by
The fish has often been associated with the World Saviors. Vishnu, the Hindu Redeemer, who takes upon himself ten forms for the redemption of the universe, was expelled from the mouth of a fish in his first incarnation. Isis, while nursing the infant Horus, is often shown with a fish on her headdress. Oannes, the Chaldean Savior (borrowed from the Brahmins), is depicted with the head and body of a fish, from which his human form protrudes at various points. Jesus was often symbolized by a fish. He told His disciples that they should became "fishers of men." The sign of the fish was also the first monogram of the Christians.
The mysterious Greek name of Jesus, zvxyb, means "a fish." The fish was accepted as a symbol of the Christ by a number of early canonized church fathers. St. Augustine likened the Christ to a fish that had been broiled, and it was also pointed out that the flesh of that Fish was the food of righteous and holy men.
another vessel and carried into port, the pattern of the ship causing it to be called a "great
fish." ("Veritatis simplex oratio est!") More probably the "whale" of Jonah is based upon
the pagan mythological creature, hippocampus, part horse and part dolphin, for the early
Christian statues and carvings show the composite creature and not a true whale.
It is reasonable to suppose that the mysterious sea serpents, which, according to the
Mayan and Toltec legends, brought the gods to Mexico were Viking or Chaldean ships,
built in the shape of composite sea monsters or dragons. H. P. Blavatsky advances the
theory that the word cetus, the great whale, is derived from keto, a name for the fish god,
Dagon, and that Jonah was actually confined in a cell hollowed out in the body of a
gigantic statue of Dagon after he had been captured by Phoenician sailors and carried to
one of their cities. There is no doubt a great mystery in the gigantic form of cetus, which
is still preserved as a constellation.
According to many scattered fragments extant, man's lower nature was symbolized by a
tremendous, awkward creature resembling a great sea serpent, or dragon, called
leviathan. All symbols having serpentine form or motion signify the solar energy in one
of its many forms. This great creature of the sea therefore represents the solar life force
imprisoned in water and also the divine energy coursing through the body of man, where,
until transmuted, it manifests itself as a writhing, twisting monster---man's greeds,
passions, and lusts. Among the symbols of Christ as the Savior of men are a number
relating to the mystery of His divine nature concealed within the personality of the lowly
The Gnostics divided the nature of the Christian Redeemer into two parts--the one Jesus,
a mortal man; the other, Christos, a personification of Nous, the principle of Cosmic
Mind. Nous, the greater, was for the period of three years (from baptism to crucifixion)
using the fleshly garment of the mortal man (Jesus). In order to illustrate this point and
still conceal it from the ignorant, many strange, and often repulsive, creatures were used
whose rough exteriors concealed magnificent organisms. Kenealy, in his notes on the
Book of Enoch, observes: "Why the caterpillar was a symbol of the Messiah is evident;
because, under a lowly, creeping, and wholly terrestrial aspect, he conceals the beautiful
butterfly-form, with its radiant wings, emulating in its varied colors the Rainbow, the
Serpent, the Salmon, the Scarab, the Peacock, and the dying Dolphin * * *.
In 1609 Henry Khunrath's Amphitheatrum Sapientiæ Æternæ was published. Eliphas
Levi declared that within its pages are concealed all the great secrets of magical
philosophy. A remarkable plate in this work shows the Hermetic sciences being attacked
by the bigoted and ignorant pedagogues of the seventeenth century. In order to express
his complete contempt for his slanderers, Khunrath made out of each a composite beast,
adding donkey ears to one and a false tail to another. He reserved the upper part of the
picture for certain petty backbiters whom he gave appropriate forms. The air was filled
with strange creatures--great dragon flies, winged frogs, birds with human heads, and
other weird forms which defy description--heaping venom, gossip, spite, slander, and
other forms of persecution upon the secret arcanum of the wise. The drawing indicated
that their attacks were ineffectual. Poisonous insects were often used to symbolize the
deadly power of the human tongue.
Insects of all kinds were also considered emblematic of the Nature spirits and d.mons,
for both were believed to inhabit the atmosphere. Medi.val drawings showing magicians
in the act of invoking spirits, often portray the mysterious powers of the other world,
which the conjurer has exorcised, as appearing to him in composite part-insect forms.
The early philosophers apparently held the opinion that the disease which swept through
communities in the form of plagues were actually living creatures, but instead of
considering a number of tiny germs they viewed the entire plague as one individuality
and gave it a hideous shape to symbolize its destructiveness. The fact that plagues came
in the air caused an insect or a bird to be used as their symbol.
Beautiful symmetrical forms were assigned to all natural benevolent conditions or
powers, but to unnatural or malevolent powers were assigned contorted and abnormal
figures. The Evil One was either hideously deformed or else of the nature of certain
despised animals. A popular superstition during the Middle Ages held that the Devil had
the feet of a rooster, while the Egyptians assigned to Typhon (Devil) the body of a hog.
The habits of the insects were carefully studied. Therefore the ant was looked upon as
emblematic of industry and foresight, as it stored up supplies for the winter and also had
strength to move objects many times its own weight. The locusts which swept down in
clouds, and in some parts of Africa and Asia obscured the sun and destroyed every green
thing, were considered fit emblems of passion, disease, hate, and strife; for these
emotions destroy all that is good in the soul of man and leave a barren desert behind
them. In the folklore of various nations, certain insects are given special significance, but
the ones which have received world-wide veneration and consideration ate the scarab, the
king of the insect kingdom; the scorpion, the great betrayer; the butterfly, the emblem of
metamorphosis; and the bee, the symbol of industry.
The Egyptian scarab is one of the most remarkable symbolic figures ever conceived by
the mind of man. It was evolved by the erudition of the priestcraft from a simple insect
which, because of its peculiar habits and appearance, properly symbolized the strength of
the body, the resurrection of the soul, and the Eternal and Incomprehensible Creator in
His aspect as Lord of the Sun. E. A. Wallis Budge says, in effect, of the worship of the
scarab by the Egyptians:
"Yet another view held in primitive times was that the sky was a vast meadow over
which a huge beetle crawled, pushing the disk of the sun before him. This beetle was the
Sky-god, and, arguing from the example of the beetle (Scarabæus sacer), which was
observed to roll along with its hind legs a ball that was believed to contain its eggs, the
early Egyptians thought that the ball of the Sky-god contained his egg and that the sun
was his offspring. Thanks, however, to the investigations of the eminent entomologist,
Monsieur J. H. Fabre, we now know that the ball which the Scarabæus sacer rolls along
contains not its eggs, but dung that is to serve as food for its egg, which it lays in a
carefully prepared place."
Initiates of the Egyptian Mysteries were sometimes called scarabs; again, lions and
panthers. The scarab was the emissary of the sun, symbolizing light, truth, and
regeneration. Stone scarabs, called heart scarabs, about three inches long, were placed in
the heart cavity of the dead when that organ was removed to be embalmed separately as
part of the process of mummifying. Some maintain that the stone beetles were merely
wrapped in the winding cloths at the time of preparing the body for eternal preservation.
The following passage concerning this appears in the great Egyptian book of initiation,
The Book of the Dead: "And behold, thou shalt make a scarab of green stone, which shalt
be placed in the breast of a man, and it shall perform for him, 'the opening of the mouth.'"
The funeral rites of many nations bear a striking resemblance to the initiatory ceremonies
of their Mysteries.
Ra, the god of the sun, had three important aspects. As the Creator of the universe he was
symbolized by the head of a scarab and was called Khepera, which signified the
resurrection of the soul and a new life at the end of the mortal span. The mummy cases of
the Egyptian dead were nearly always ornamented with scarabs. Usually one of these
beetles, with outspread wings, was painted on the mummy case directly over the breast of
the dead. The finding of such great numbers of small stone scarabs indicates that they
were a favorite article of adornment among the Egyptians. Because of its relationship to
the sun, the scarab symbolized the divine part of man's nature. The fact that its beautiful
wings were concealed under its glossy shell typified the winged soul of man hidden
within its earthly sheath. The Egyptian soldiers were given the scarab as their special
symbol because the ancients believed that these creatures were all of the male sex and
consequently appropriate emblems of virility, strength, and courage.
Plutarch noted the fact that the scarab rolled its peculiar ball of dung backwards, while
the insect itself faced the opposite direction. This made it an especially fitting symbol for
the sun, because this orb (according to Egyptian astronomy) was rolling from west to east, although apparently moving in the opposite direction. An Egyptian allegory states
that the sunrise is caused by the scarab unfoldingits wings, which stretch out as glorious colors on each side of its body--the solar globe-- and that when it folds its wings under its dark shell at sunset, night follows. Khepera, the scarab-headed aspect of Ra, is often symbolized riding through the sea of the sky in a wonderful ship called the Boat of the Sun.
The scorpion is the symbol of both wisdom and self-destruction. It was called by the
Egyptians the creature accursed; the time of year when the sun entered the sign of
Scorpio marked the beginning of the rulership of Typhon. When the twelve signs of the
zodiac were used to represent the twelve Apostles (although the reverse is true), the
scorpion was assigned to Judas Iscariot--the betrayer.
The scorpion stings with its tail, and for this reason it has been called a backbiter, a false
and deceitful thing. Calmet, in his Dictionary of the Bible, declares the scorpion to be a
fit emblem of the wicked and the symbol of persecution. The dry winds of Egypt are said
to be produced by Typhon, who imparts to the sand the blistering heat of the infernal
world and the sting of the scorpion. This insect was also the symbol of the spinal fire
which, according to the Egyptian Mysteries, destroyed man when it was permitted to
gather at the base of his spine (the tail of the scorpion).The red star Antares in the back of
the celestial scorpion was considered the worst light in the heavens. Kalb al Akrab, or the
heart of the scorpion, was called by the ancients the lieutenant or deputy of Mars. (See
footnote to Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos.) Antares was believed to impair the eyesight, often
causing blindness if it rose over the horizon when a child was born. This may refer again
to the sand storm, which was capable of blinding unwary travelers.
The scorpion was also the symbol of wisdom, for the fire which it controlled was capable
of illuminating as well as consuming. Initiation into the Greater Mysteries among the
pagans was said to take place only in the sign of the scorpion. In the papyrus of Ani (The
Book of the Dead), the deceased likens his soul to a scorpion, saying: "I am a swallow, I
am that scorpion, the daughter of Ra!" Elizabeth Goldsmith, in her treatise on Sex
Symbolism, states that the scorpions were a "symbol of Selk, the Egyptian goddess of
writing, and also [were] revered by the Babylonians and Assyrians as guardians of the
gateway of the sun. Seven scorpions were said to have accompanied Isis when she
searched for the remains of Osiris scattered by Set" (Typhon).
In his Chaldean Account of the Genesis, George Smith, copying from the cuneiform
cylinders, in describing the wanderings of the hero Izdubar (Nimrod), throws some light
on the scorpion god who guards the sun. The tablet which he translated is not perfect, but
the meaning is fairly clear: "* * * who each day guard the rising sun. Their crown was at
the lattice of heaven, under hell their feet were placed [the spinal column]. The scorpion
man guarded the gate, burning with terribleness, their appearance was like death, the
might of his fear shook the forest. At the rising of the sun and the setting of the sun, they
guarded the sun; Izdubar saw them and fear and terror came into his face." Among the
early Latins there was a machine of war called the scorpion. It was used for firing arrows
and probably obtained its name from a long beam, resembling a scorpion's tail, which
flew up to hurl the arrows. The missiles discharged by this machine were also called
The scorpion often appears upon the talismans and charms of the Middle Ages. This hieroglyphic Arachnida was supposed to have the power of curing disease. The scorpion shown above was composed of several metals, and was made under certain planetary configurations. Paracelsus advised that it be worn by those suffering from any derangement of the reproductive system.
The butterfly (under the name of Psyche, a beautiful maiden with wings of opalescent
light) symbolizes the human soul because of the stages it passes through in order to
unfold its power of flight. The three divisions through which the butterfly passes in its
unfoldment resemble closely the three degrees of the Mystery School, which degrees are
regarded as consummating the unfoldment of man by giving him emblematic wings by
which he may soar to the skies. Unregenerate man, ignorant and helpless, is symbolized
by the stage between ovum and larva; the disciple, seeking truth and dwelling in
medication, by the second stage, from larva to pupa, at which time the insect enters its
chrysalis (the tomb of the Mysteries); the third stage, from pupa to imago (wherein the
perfect butterfly comes forth), typifies the unfolded enlightened soul of the initiate rising
from the tomb of his baser nature.
Night moths typify the secret wisdom, because they are hard to discover and are
concealed by the darkness (ignorance). Some are emblems of death, as Acherontia
atropos, the death's-head moth, which has a marking on its body somewhat like a human
skull. The death-watch beetle, which was believed to give warning of approaching death
by a peculiar ticking sound, is another instance of insects involved in human affairs.
Opinions differ concerning the spider. Its shape makes it an appropriate emblem of the
nerve plexus and ganglia of the human body. Some Europeans consider it extremely bad
luck to kill a spider--possibly because it is looked upon as an emissary of the Evil One,
whom no person desires to offend. There is a mystery concerning all poisonous creatures,
especially insects. Paracelsus taught that the spider was the medium for a powerful but
evil force which the Black Magicians used in their nefarious undertakings.
Certain plants, minerals, and animals have been sacred among all the nations of the earth
because of their peculiar sensitiveness to the astral fire--a mysterious agency in Nature
which the scientific world has contacted through its manifestations as electricity and
magnetism. Lodestone and radium in the mineral world and various parasitic growths in
the plant kingdom are strangely susceptible to this cosmic electric fire, or universal life
force. The magicians of the Middle Ages surrounded themselves with such creatures as
bats, spiders, cats, snakes, and monkeys, because they were able to appropriate the life
forces of these species and use them to the attainment of their own ends. Some ancient
schools of wisdom taught that all poisonous insects and reptiles are germinated out of the
evil nature of man, and that when intelligent human beings no longer breed hate in their
own souls there will be no more ferocious animals, loathsome diseases, or poisonous
plants and insects.
Among the American Indians is the legend of a "Spider Man," whose web connected the
heaven worlds with the earth. The secret schools of India symbolize certain of the gods
who labored with the universe during its making as connecting the realms of light with
those of darkness by means of webs. Therefore the builders of the cosmic system who
held the embryonic universe together with threads of invisible force were sometimes
referred to as the Spider Gods and their ruler was designated The Great Spider.
The beehive is found in Masonry as a reminder that in diligence and labor for a common
good true happiness and prosperity are found. The bee is a symbol of wisdom, for as this
tiny insect collects pollen from the flowers, so men may extract wisdom from the
experiences of daily life. The bee is sacred to the goddess Venus and, according to
mystics, it is one of several forms of life which came to the earth from the planet Venus
millions of years ago. Wheat and bananas are said to be of similar origin. This is the
reason why the origin of these three forms of life cannot be traced. The fact that bees are
ruled by queens is one reason why this insect is considered a sacred feminine symbol.
In India the god Prana--the personification of the universal life force--is sometimes
shown surrounded by a circle of bees. Because of its importance in pollenizing flowers,
the bee is the accepted symbol of the generative power. At one time the bee was the
emblem of the French kings. The rulers of France wore robes embroidered with bees, and
the canopies of their thrones were decorated with gigantic figures of these insects.
The fly symbolizes the tormentor, because of the annoyance it causes to animals. The
Chaldean god Baal was often called Baal-Zebul, or the god of the dwelling place. The
word zebub, or zabab, means a fly, and Baal-Zebul became Baalzebub, or Beelzebub, a
word which was loosely translated to mean Jupiter's fly. The fly was looked upon as a
form of the divine power, because of its ability to destroy decaying substances and thus
promote health. The fly may have obtained its name Zebub from its peculiar buzzing or
humming. Inman believes that Baalzebub, which the Jews ridiculed as My Lord of Flies,
really means My Lord Who Hums or Murmurs.
Inman recalls the singing Memnon on the Egyptian desert, a tremendous figure with an
.olian harp on the top of its head. When the wind blows strongly this great Statue sighs,
or hums. The Jews changed Baalzebub into Beelzebub, and made him their prince of
devils by interpreting dæmon as "demon." Naud.us, in defending Virgil from
accusations of sorcery, attempted a wholesale denial of the miracles supposedly
performed by Virgil and produced enough evidence to convict the poet on all counts.
Among other strange fears, Virgil fashioned a fly out of brass, and after certain
mysterious ceremonies, placed it over one of the gates of Naples. As a result, no flies
entered the city for more than eight years.
The serpent was chosen as the head of the reptilian family. Serpent worship in some form
has permeated nearly all parts of theearth. The serpent mounds of the American Indian; the carved-stone snakes of Central and South America; the hooded cobras of India; Python, the great snake o the Greeks; the sacred serpents of the Druids; the Midgard snake of Scandinavia; the Nagas of Burma, Siam, and Cambodia; the brazen serpent of the Jews; the mystic serpent of Orpheus; the snakes at the oracle; of Delphi twining themselves around the tripod upon which the Pythian priestess sat, the tripod itself being in the form of twisted serpents; the sacred
serpents preserved in the Egyptian temples; the Ur.us coiled upon the foreheads of the
Pharaohs and priests;--all these bear witness to the universal veneration in which the
snake was held. In the ancient Mysteries the serpent entwining a staff was the symbol of
the physician. The serpent-wound staff of Hermes remains the emblem of the medical
profession. Among nearly all these ancient peoples the serpent was accepted as the
symbol of wisdom or salvation. The antipathy which Christendom feels towards the
snake is based upon the little-understood allegory of the Garden of Eden.
The serpent is true to the principle of wisdom, for it tempts man to the knowledge of
himself. Therefore the knowledge of self resulted from man's disobedience to the
Demiurgus, Jehovah. How the serpent came to be in the garden of the Lord after God had
declared that all creatures which He had made during the six days of creation were good
has not been satisfactorily answered by the interpreters of Scripture. The tree that grows
in the midst of the garden is the spinal fire; the knowledge of the use of that spinal fire is
the gift of the great serpent. Notwithstanding statements to the contrary, the serpent is the
symbol and prototype of the Universal Savior, who redeems the worlds by giving
creation the knowledge of itself and the realization of good and evil. If this be not so,
why did Moses raise a brazen serpent upon a cross in the wilderness that all who looked
upon it might be saved from the sting of the lesser snakes? Was not the brazen serpent a
prophecy of the crucified Man to come? If the serpent be only a thing of evil, why did
Christ instruct His disciples to be as wise as serpents?
The accepted theory that the serpent is evil cannot be substantiated. It has long been
viewed as the emblem of immortality. It is the symbol of reincarnation, or
metempsychosis, because it annually sheds its skin, reappearing, as it were, in a new
body. There is an ancient superstition to the effect that snakes never die except by
violence and that, if uninjured, they would live forever. It was also believed that snakes
swallowed themselves, and this resulted in their being considered emblematic of the
Supreme Creator, who periodically reabsorbed His universe back into Himself.
In Isis Unveiled, H. P. Blavatsky makes this significant statement concerning the origin
of serpent worship: "Before our globe had become egg-shaped or round it was a long trail
of cosmic dust or fire-mist, moving and writhing like a serpent. This, say the
explanations, was the Spirit of God moving on the chaos until its breath had incubated
cosmic matter and made it assume the annular shape of a serpent with its tail in its
month--emblem of eternity in its spiritual and of our world in its physical sense."
The seven-headed snake represents the Supreme Deity manifesting through His Elohim,
or Seven Spirits, by whose aid He established His universe. The coils of the snake have
been used by the pagans to symbolize the motion and also the orbits of the celestial
bodies, and it is probable that the symbol of the serpent twisted around the egg--which
was common to many of the ancient Mystery schools--represented both the apparent
motion of the sun around the earth, and the bands of astral light, or the great magical
agent, which move about the planet incessantly.
Electricity was commonly symbolized by the serpent because of its motion. Electricity
passing between the poles of a spark gap is serpentine in its motion. Force projected
through atmosphere was called The Great Snake. Being symbolic of universal force, the
serpent was emblematic of both good and evil. Force can tear down as rapidly as it can
build up. The serpent with its tail in its mouth is the symbol of eternity, for in this
position the body of the reptile has neither beginning nor end. The head and tail represent
the positive and negative poles of the cosmic life circuit. The initiates of the Mysteries
were often referred to as serpents, and their wisdom was considered analogous to the
divinely inspired power of the snake. There is no doubt that the title "Winged Serpents"
(the Seraphim?) was given to one of the invisible hierarchies that labored with the earth
during its early formation.
There is a legend that in the beginning of the world winged serpents reigned upon the
earth. These were probably the demigods which antedate the historical civilization of
every nation. The symbolic relationship between the sun and the serpent found literal
witness in the fact that life remains in the snake until sunset, even though it be cut into a
dozen parts. The Hopi Indians consider the serpent to be in close communication with the
Earth Spirit. Therefore, at the time of their annual snake dance they send their prayers to
the Earth Spirit by first specially sanctifying large numbers of these reptiles and then
liberating them to return to the earth with the prayers of the tribe.
The great rapidity of motion manifested by lizards has caused them to be associated with
Mercury, the Messenger of the Gods, whose winged feet traveled infinite distances
almost instantaneously. A point which must not be overlooked in connection with reptiles
in symbolism is clearly brought out by the eminent scholar, Dr. H. E. Santee, in his
Anatomy of the Brain and Spinal Cord: "In reptiles there are two pineal bodies, an
anterior and a posterior, of which the posterior remains undeveloped but the anterior
forms a rudimentary, cyclopean eye. In the Hatteria, a New Zealand lizard, it projects
through the parietal foramen and presents an imperfect lens and retina and, in its long
stalk, nerve fibers."
Crocodiles were regarded by the Egyptians both as symbols of Typhon and emblems of
the Supreme Deity, of the latter because while under water the crocodile is capable of
seeing--Plutarch asserts--though its eyes are covered by a thin membrane. The Egyptians
declared that no matter how far away the crocodile laid its eggs, the Nile would reach up
to them in its next inundation, this reptile being endowed with a mysterious sense capable
of making known the extent of the flood months before it took place. There were two
kinds of crocodiles. The larger and more ferocious was hated by the Egyptians, for they
likened it to the nature of Typhon, their destroying demon. Typhon waited to devour all
who failed to pass the judgment of the Dead, which rite took place in the Hall of Justice
between the earth and the Elysian Fields. Anthony Todd Thomson thus describes the
good treatment accorded the smaller and tamer crocodiles, which the Egyptians accepted
as personifications of good: "They were fed daily and occasionally had mulled wine
poured down their throats. Their ears were ornamented with rings of gold and precious
stones, and their forefeet adorned with bracelets."
To the Chinese the turtle was a symbol of longevity. At a temple in Singapore a number
of sacred turtles are kept, their age recorded by carvings on their shells. The American
Indians use the ridge down the back of the turtle shell as a symbol of the Great Divide
between life and death. The turtle is a symbol of wisdom because it retires into itself and
is its own protection. It is also a phallic symbol, as its relation to long life would signify.
The Hindus symbolized the universe as being supported on the backs of four great
elephants who, in turn, are standing upon an immense turtle which is crawling
continually through chaos.
The Egyptian sphinx, the Greek centaur, and the Assyrian man-bull have much in
common. All are composite creatures combining human and animal members; in the
Mysteries all signify the composite nature of man and subtly refer to the hierarchies of
celestial beings that have charge of the destiny of mankind. These hierarchies are the
twelve holy animals now known as constellations--star groups which are merely symbols
of impersonal spiritual impulses. Chiron, the centaur, teaching the sons of men,
symbolizes the intelligences of the constellation of Sagittarius, who were the custodians
of the secret doctrine while (geocentrically) the sun was passing through the sign of
Gemini. The five-footed Assyrian man-bull with the wings of an eagle and the head of a
man is a reminder that the invisible nature of man has the wings of a god, the head of a
man, and the body of a beast. The same concept was expressed through the sphinx--that
armed guardian of the Mysteries who, crouching at the gate of the temple, denied
entrance to the profane. Thus placed between man and his divine possibilities, the sphinx
also represented the secret doctrine itself. Children's fairy stories abound with
descriptions of symbolic monsters, for nearly all such tales are based upon the ancient
FISHES, INSECTS, ANIMALS, REPTILES AND BIRDS (PART TWO)
AS appropriate emblems of various human and divine attributes birds were included in
religious and philosophic symbolism that of pagans and of Christians alike. Cruelty was
signified by the buzzard; courage by the eagle; self-sacrifice by the pelican; and pride by
the peacock. The ability of birds to leave the earth and fly aloft toward the source of light
has resulted in their being associated with aspiration, purity, and beauty. Wings were
therefore often added to various terrene creatures in an effort to suggest transcendency.
Because their habitat was among the branches of the sacred trees in the hearts of ancient
forests, birds were also regarded as the appointed messengers of the tree spirits and
Nature gods dwelling in these consecrated groves, and through their clear notes the gods
themselves were said to speak. Many myths have been fabricated to explain the brilliant
plumage of birds. A familiar example is the story of Juno's peacock, in whose tail
feathers were placed the eyes of Argus. Numerous American Indian legends also deal
with birds and the origin of the various colors of feathers. The Navahos declare that when
all living things climbed to the stalk of a bamboo to escape the Flood, the wild turkey was
on the lowest branch and his tail feathers trailed in the water; hence the color was all
Gravitation, which is a law in the material world, is the impulse toward the center of
materiality; levitation, which is a law in the spiritual world, is the impulse toward the
center of spirituality. Seeming to be capable of neutralizing the effect of gravity, the bird
was said to partake of a nature superior to other terrestrial creation; and its feathers,
because of their sustaining power, came to be accepted as symbols of divinity, courage,
and accomplishment. A notable example is the dignity attached to eagle feathers by the
American Indians, among whom they are insignia of merit. Angels have been invested
with wings because, like birds, they were considered to be the intermediaries between the
gods and men and to inhabit the air or middle kingdom betwixt heaven and earth. As the
dome of the heavens was likened to a skull in the Gothic Mysteries, so the birds which
flew across the sky were regarded as thoughts of the Deity. For this reason Odin's two
messenger ravens were called Hugin and Munin--thought and memory.
Among the Greeks and Romans, the eagle was the appointed bird of Jupiter and
consequently signified the swiftly moving forces of the Demiurgus; hence it was looked
upon as the mundane lord of the birds, in contradistinction to the phoenix, which was
symbolic of the celestial ruler. The eagle typified the sun in its material phase and also
the immutable Demiurgic law beneath which all mortal creatures must bend. The eagle
was also the Hermetic symbol of sulphur, and signified the mysterious fire of Scorpio--
the most profoundly significant sign of the zodiac and the Gate of the Great Mystery.
Being one of the three symbols of Scorpio, the eagle, like the Goat of Mendes, was an
emblem of the theurgic art and the secret processes by which the infernal fire of the
scorpion was transmuted into the spiritual light-fire of the gods.
Among certain American Indian tribes the thunderbird is held in peculiar esteem. This
divine creature is said to live above the clouds; the flapping of its wings causes the
rumbling which accompanies storms, while the flashes from its eyes are the lightning.
Birds were used to signify the vital breath; and among the Egyptians, mysterious
hawklike birds with human heads, and carrying in their claws the symbols of immortality,
are often shown hovering as emblems of the liberated soul over the mummified bodies of
the dead. In Egypt the hawk was the sacred symbol of the sun; and Ra, Osiris, and Horns
are often depicted with the heads of hawks. The cock, or rooster, was a symbol of
Cashmala (Cadmillus) in the Samothracian Mysteries, and is also a phallic symbol sacred
to the sun. It was accepted by the Greeks as the emblem of Ares (Mars) and typified
watchfulness and defense. When placed in the center of a weather vane it signifies the
sun in the midst of the four corners of creation. The Greeks sacrificed a rooster to the
gods at the time of entering the Eleusinian Mysteries. Sir Francis Bacon is supposed to
have died as the result of stuffing a fowl with snow. May this not signify Bacon's
initiation into the pagan Mysteries which still existed in his day?
Both the peacock and the ibis were objects of veneration because they destroyed the
poisonous reptiles which were popularly regarded as the emissaries of the infernal gods.
Because of the myriad of eyes in its tail feathers the peacock was accepted as the symbol
of wisdom, and on account of its general appearance it was often confused with the
fabled phoenix of the Mysteries. There is a curious belief that the flesh of the peacock will
not putrefy even though kept for a considerable time. As an outgrowth of this belief the
peacock became the emblem of immortality, because the spiritual nature of man--like the
flesh of this bird--is incorruptible.
The Egyptians paid divine honors to the ibis and it was a cardinal crime to kill one, even
by accident. It was asserted that the ibis could live only in Egypt and that if transported to
a foreign country it would die of grief. The Egyptians declared this bird to be the
preserver of crops and especially worthy of veneration because it drove out the winged
serpents of Libya which the wind blew into Egypt. The ibis was sacred to Thoth, and
when its head and neck were tucked under its wing its body closely resembled a human
heart. (See Montfaucon's Antiquities.) The black and white ibis was sacred to the moon;
but all forms were revered because they destroyed crocodile eggs, the crocodile being a
symbol of the detested Typhon.
Nocturnal birds were appropriate symbols of both sorcery and the secret divine sciences:
sorcery because black magic cannot function in the light of truth (day) and is powerful
only when surrounded by ignorance (night); and the divine sciences because those
possessing the arcana are able to see through the darkness of ignorance and materiality.
Owls and bats were consequently often associated with either witchcraft or wisdom. The
goose was an emblem of the first primitive substance or condition from which and within
which the worlds were fashioned. In the Mysteries, the universe was likened to an egg
which the Cosmic Goose had laid in space. Because of its blackness the crow was the
symbol of chaos or the chaotic darkness preceding the light of creation. The grace and
purity of the swan were emblematic of the spiritual grace and purity of the initiate. This
bird also represented the Mysteries which unfolded these qualities in humanity. This
explains the allegories of the gods (the secret wisdom) incarnating in the body of a swan
Being scavengers, the vulture, the buzzard, and the condor signified that form of divine
power which by disposing of refuse and other matter dangerous to the life and health of
humanity cleanses and purifies the lower spheres. These birds were therefore adopted as
symbols of the disintegrative processes which accomplish good while apparently
destroying, and by some religions have been mistakenly regarded as evil. Birds such as
the parrot and raven were accorded veneration because, being able to mimic the human
voice, they were looked upon as links between the human and animal kingdoms.
The dove, accepted by Christianity as the emblem of the Holy Ghost, is an extremely
ancient and highly revered pagan yonic emblem. In many of the ancient Mysteries it
represented the third person of the Creative Triad, or the Fabricator of the world. As the
lower worlds were brought into existence through a generative process, so the dove has
been associated with those deities identified with the procreative functions. It is sacred to
Astarte, Cybele, Isis, Venus, Juno, Mylitta, and Aphrodite. On account of its gentleness
and devotion to its young, the dove was looked upon as the embodiment of the maternal
instinct. The dove is also an emblem of wisdom, for it represents the power and order by
which the lower worlds are maintained. It has long been accepted as a messenger of the
divine will, and signifies the activity of God.
The name dove has been given to oracles and to prophets. "The true name of the dove
was Ionah or Iönas; it was a very sacred emblem, and atone time almost universally
received; it was adopted by the Hebrews; and the mystic Dove was regarded as a symbol
from the days of Noah by all those who were of the Church of God. The prophet sent to
Ninevah as God's messenger was called Jonah or the Dove; our Lord's forerunner, the
Baptist, was called in Greek by the name of Ioannes; and so was the Apostle of Love, the
author Of the fourth Gospel and of the Apocalypse, named Ioannes." (Bryant's Analysis
of Ancient Mythology.)
In Masonry the dove is the symbol of purity and innocence. It is significant that in the
pagan Mysteries the dove of Venus was crucified upon the four spokes of a great wheel,
thus foreshadowing the mystery of the crucified Lord of Love. Although Mohammed
drove the doves from the temple at Mecca, occasionally he is depicted with a dove sitting
upon his shoulder as the symbol of divine inspiration. In ancient times the effigies of
doves were placed upon the heads of scepters to signify that those bearing them were
overshadowed by divine prerogative. In mediæval art, the dove frequently was pictured
as an emblem of divine benediction.
The LION is the king of the animal family and, like the head of each kingdom, is sacred to
the sun, whose rays are symbolized by the lion's shaggy mane. The allegories perpetuated
by the Mysteries (such as the one to the effect that the lion opens the secret book) signify
that the solar power opens the seed pods, releasing the spiritual life within. There was
also a curious belief among the ancients that the lion sleeps with his eyes open, and for
this reason the animal was chosen as a symbol of vigilance. The figure of a lion placed on
either side of doors and gateways is an emblem of divine guardianship. King Solomon
was often symbolized as a lion. For ages the feline family has been regarded with
peculiar veneration. In several of the Mysteries--most notably the Egyptian--the priests
wore the skins of lions, tigers, panthers, pumas, or leopards. Hercules and Samson (both
solar symbols) slew the lion of the constellation of Leo and robed themselves in his skin,
thus signifying that they represented the sun itself when at the summit of the celestial
At Bubastis in Egypt was the temple of the famous goddess Bast, the cat deity of the
Ptolemies. The Egyptians paid homage to the cat, especially when its fur was of three
shades or its eyes of different colors. To the priests the cat was symbolic of the magnetic
forces of Nature, and they surrounded themselves with these animals for the sake of the
astral fire which emanated from their bodies. The cat was also a symbol of eternity, for
when it sleeps it curls up into a ball with its head and tail touching. Among the Greeks
and Latins the cat was sacred to the goddess Diana. The Buddhists of India invested the
cat with special significance, but for a different reason. The cat was the only animal
absent at the death of the great Buddha, because it had stopped on the way to chase a
mouse. That the symbol of the lower astral forces should not be present at the liberation
of the Buddha is significant.
Regarding the cat, Herodotus says: "Whenever a fire breaks out, cats are agitated with a
kind of divine motion, which they that keep them observe, neglecting the fire: The cats,
however, in spite of their care, break from them, leaping even over the heads of their
keepers to throw themselves into the fire. The Egyptians then make great mourning for
their death. If a cat dies a natural death in a house, all they of that house shave their
eyebrows: If a dog, they shave the head and all the body. They used to embalm their dead
cats, and carry them to Bubastis to be interred in a sacred house. (Montfaucon's
The most important of all symbolic animals was the Apis, or Egyptian bull of Memphis,
which was regarded as the sacred vehicle for the transmigration of the soul of the god
Osiris. It was declared that the Apis was conceived by a bolt of lightning, and the
ceremony attendant upon its selection and consecration was one of the most impressive in
Egyptian ritualism. The Apis had to be marked in a certain manner. Herodotus states that
the bull must be black with a square white spot on his forehead, the form of an eagle
(probably a vulture) on his back, a beetle upon (under) his tongue, and the hair of his tail
lying two ways. Other writers declare that the sacred bull was marked with twenty-nine
sacred symbols, his body was spotted, and upon his right side was a white mark in the
form of a crescent. After its sanctification the Apis was kept in a stable adjacent to the
temple and led in processionals through the streets of the city upon certain solemn
occasions. It was a popular belief among the Egyptians that any child upon whom the bull
breathed would become illustrious. After reaching a certain age (twenty-five years) the
Apis was taken either to the river Nile or to a sacred fountain (authorities differ on this
point) and drowned, amidst the lamentations of the populace. The mourning and wailing
for his death continued until the new Apis was found, when it was declared that Osiris
had reincarnated, whereupon rejoicing took the place of grief.
The worship of the bull was not confined to Egypt, but was prevalent in many nations of
the ancient world. In India, Nandi--the sacred white bull of Siva--is still the object of
much veneration; and both the Persians and the Jews accepted the bull as an important
religious symbol. The Assyrians, Phoenicians, Chaldeans, and even the Greeks reverenced
this animal, and Jupiter turned himself into a white bull to abduct Europa. The bull was a
powerful phallic emblem signifying the paternal creative power of the Demiurgus. At his
death he was frequently mummified and buried with the pomp and dignity of a god in a
specially prepared sarcophagus. Excavations in the Serapeum at Memphis have
uncovered the tombs of more than sixty of these sacred animals.
As the sign rising over the horizon at the vernal equinox constitutes the starry body for
the annual incarnation of the sun, the bull not only was the celestial symbol of the Solar
Man but, because the vernal equinox took place in the constellation of Taurus, was called
the breaker or opener of the year. For this reason in astronomical symbolism the bull is
often shown breaking the annular egg with his horns. The Apis further signifies that the
God-Mind is incarnated in the body of a beast and therefore that the physical beast form
is the sacred vehicle of divinity. Man's lower personality is the Apis in which Osiris
incarnates. The result of the combination is the creation of Sor-Apis (Serapis)-the
material soul as ruler of the irrational material body and involved therein. After a certain
period (which is determined by the square of five, or twenty-five years), the body of the
Apis is destroyed and the soul liberated by the water which drowns the material life. This
was indicative of the washing away of the material nature by the baptismal waters of
divine light and truth. The drowning of the Apis is the symbol of death; the resurrection
of Osiris in the new bull is the symbol of eternal renovation. The white bull was also
symbolically sacred as the appointed emblem of the initiates, signifying the spiritualized
material bodies of both man and Nature.
When the vernal equinox no longer occurred in the sign of Taurus, the Sun God
incarnated in the constellation of Aries and the ram then became the vehicle of the solar
power. Thus the sun rising in the sign of the Celestial Lamb triumphs over the symbolic
serpent of darkness. The lamb is a familiar emblem of purity because of its gentleness
and the whiteness of its wool. In many of the pagan Mysteries it signified the Universal
Savior, and in Christianity it is the favorite symbol of Christ. Early church paintings show
a lamb standing upon a little hill, and from its feet pour four streams of living water
signifying the four Gospels. The blood of the lamb is the solar life pouring into the world
through the sign of Aries.
The goat is both a phallic symbol and also an emblem of courage or aspiration because of
its surefootedness and ability to scale the loftiest peaks. To the alchemists the goat's head
was the symbol of sulphur. The practice among the ancient Jews of choosing a scapegoat
upon which to heap the sins of mankind is merely an allegorical
THE SACRED BULL, OR APIS.
The importance of the bull as the symbol of the sun at the vernal equinox is discussed in
the chapter on The Zodiac and Its Signs. The bull and the ox are ancient emblems of the
element of earth--consequently of the planet itself. They also signify the animal nature of
man, and for this reason were sacrificed upon the altars of such ancient Mysteries as the
Jewish and Druidic. Plutarch wrote: "The Apis ought to be regarded by us, as a fair and
beautiful image of the soul of Osiris." Osiris represents the spiritual nature of the lower
world which is murdered and distributed throughout the substance of the physical
spheres; Apis is the emblem of the material world within which is the spiritual nature--
Osiris. The Apis is also the symbol of the exoteric (or profane) doctrine, in
contradistinction to the esoteric (or divine) teachings represented by the uræus worn upon
the foreheads of the priests. Front this is derived the mythological allegory of Serapis,
who in a certain sense is not only the composite figure of Osiris and the lower world in
which he is incarnated but also of the Mysteries, which are the terrestrial bodies
containing the secret teachings, or the spiritual soul.
depiction of the Sun Man who is the scapegoat of the world and upon whom are cast the
sins of the twelve houses (tribes) of the celestial universe. Truth is the Divine Lamb
worshiped throughout pagandom and slain for the sins of the world, and since the dawn
of time the Savior Gods of all religions have been personifications of this Truth. The
Golden Fleece sought by Jason and his Argonauts is the Celestial Lamb--the spiritual and
intellectual sun. The secret doctrine is also typified by the Golden Fleece--the wool of the
Divine Life, the rays of the Sun of Truth. Suidas declares the Golden Fleece to have been
in reality a book, written upon skin, which contained the formulæ for the production of
gold by means of chemistry. The Mysteries were institutions erected for the
transmutation of base ignorance into precious illumination. The dragon of ignorance was
the terrible creature set to guard the Golden Fleece, and represents the darkness of the old
year which battles with the sun at the time of its equinoctial passage.
Deer were sacred in the Bacchic Mysteries of the Greeks; the Bacchantes were often
clothed in fawnskins. Deer were associated with the worship of the moon goddess and the
Bacchic orgies were usually conducted at night. The grace and speed of this animal
caused it to be accepted as the proper symbol of esthetic abandon. Deer were objects of
veneration with many nations. In Japan, herds of them are still maintained in connection
with the temples.
The wolf is usually associated with the principle of evil, because of the mournful
discordance of its howl and the viciousness of its nature. In Scandinavian mythology the
Fenris Wolf was one of the sons of Loki, the infernal god of the fires. With the temple of
Asgard in flames about them, the gods under the command of Odin fought their last great
battle against the chaotic forces of evil. With frothing jowls the Fenris Wolf devoured
Odin, the Father of the Gods, and thus destroyed the Odinic universe. Here the Fenris
Wolf represents those mindless powers of Nature that overthrew the primitive creation.
The unicorn, or monoceros, was a most curious creation of the ancient initiates. It is
described by Thomas Boreman as "a beast, which though doubted of by many writers, yet
is by others thus described: He has but one horn, and that an exceedingly rich one,
growing out of the middle of his forehead. His head resembles an hart's, his feet an
elephant's, his tail a boar's, and the rest of his body an horse's. The horn is about a foot
and half in length. His voice is like the lowing of an ox. His mane and hair are of a
yellowish colour. His horn is as hard as iron, and as rough as any file, twisted or curled,
like a flaming sword; very straight, sharp, and every where black, excepting the point.
Great virtues are attributed to it, in expelling of poison and curing of several diseases. He
is not a beast of prey. " (See Redgrove's Bygone Beliefs.)
While the unicorn is mentioned several times in Scripture, no proof has yet been
discovered of its existence. There are a number of drinking horns in various museums
presumably fashioned from its spike. It is reasonably certain, however, that these
drinking vessels were really made either from the tusks of some large mammal or the
horn of a rhinoceros. J. P. Lundy believes that the horn of the unicorn symbolizes the
hem of salvation mentioned by St. Luke which, pricking the hearts of men, turns them to
a consideration of salvation through Christ. Mediæval Christian mystics employed the
unicorn as an emblem of Christ, and this creature must therefore signify the spiritual life
in man. The single horn of the unicorn may represent the pineal gland, or third eye, which
is the spiritual cognition center in the brain. The unicorn was adopted by the Mysteries as
a symbol of the illumined spiritual nature of the initiate, the horn with which it defends
itself being the flaming sword of the spiritual doctrine against, which nothing can prevail.
In the Book of Lambspring, a rare Hermetic tract, appears an engraving showing a deer
and a unicorn standing together in a wood. The picture is accompanied by the following
text: "The Sages say truly that two animals are in this forest: One glorious, beautiful, and
swift, a great and strong deer; the other an unicorn. * * * If we apply the parable of our
art, we shall call the forest the body. * * * The unicorn will be the spirit at all times. The
deer desires no other name but that of the soul; * * *. He that knows how to tame and
master them by art, to couple them together, and to lead them in and our of the form, may
justly be called a Master."
The Egyptian devil, Typhon, was often symbolized by the Set monster whose identity is
obscure. It has a queer snoutlike nose and pointed ears, and may have been a
conventional hyena. The Set monster lived in the sand storms and wandered about the
world promulgating evil. The Egyptians related the howling of the desert winds with the
moaning cry of the hyena. Thus when in the depths of the night the hyena sent forth its
doleful wail it sounded like the last despairing cry of a lost soul in the clutches of
Typhon. Among the duties of this evil creature was that of protecting the Egyptian dead
against: grave robbers.
Among other symbols of Typhon was the hippopotamus, sacred to the god Mars because
Mars was enthroned in the sign of Scorpio, the house of Typhon. The ass was also sacred
to this Egyptian demon. Jesus riding into Jerusalem upon the back of an ass has the same
significance as Hermes standing upon the prostrate form of Typhon. The early Christians
were accused of worshiping the head of an ass.
A most curious animal symbol is the hog or sow, sacred to Diana, and frequently employed in the Mysteries as an emblem of theoccult art. The wild boar which gored Atys shows the use of this animal in the Mysteries.
According to the Mysteries, the monkey represents the condition of man before the
rational soul entered into his constitution. Therefore it typifies the irrational man. By
some the monkey is looked upon as a species not ensouled by the spiritual hierarchies; by
others as a fallen state wherein man has been deprived of his divine nature through
degeneracy. The ancients, though evolutionists, did not trace man's ascent through the
monkey; the monkey they considered as having separated itself from the main stem of
progress. The monkey was occasionally employed as a symbol of learning.
Cynocephalus, the dog-headed ape, was the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol of writing, and
was closely associated with Thoth. Cynocephalus is symbolic of the moon and Thoth of
the planet Mercury. Because of the ancient belief that the moon followed Mercury about
the heavens the dog-ape was described as the faithful companion of Thoth.
The dog, because of its faithfulness, denotes the relationship which should exist between
disciple and master or between the initiate and his God. The shepherd dog was a type of
the priestcraft. The dog's ability to sense and follow unseen persons for miles symbolized
the transcendental power by which the philosopher follows the thread of truth through the
labyrinth of earthly error. The dog is also the symbol of Mercury. The Dog Star, Sirius or
Sothis, was sacred to the Egyptians because it presaged the annual inundations of the
As a beast of burden the horse was the symbol of the body of man forced to sustain the
weight of his spiritual constitution. Conversely, it also typified the spiritual nature of man
forced to maintain the burden of the material personality. Chiron, the centaur, mentor of
Achilles, represents the primitive creation which was the progenitor and instructor of
mankind, as described by Berossus. The winged horse and the magic carpet both
symbolize the secret doctrine and the spiritualized body of man. The wooden horse of
Troy, secreting an army for the capture of the city, represents man's body concealing
within it those infinite potentialities which will later come forth and conquer his
environment. Again, like Noah's Ark, it represents the spiritual nature of man as
containing a host of latent potentialities which subsequently become active. The siege of
Troy is a symbolic account of the abduction of the human soul (Helena) by the
personality (Paris) and its final redemption, through persevering struggle, by the secret
doctrine--the Greek army under the command of Agamemnon.
FLOWERS, PLANTS, FRUITS, AND TREES
THE yoni and phallus were worshiped by nearly all ancient peoples as appropriate
symbols of God's creative power. The Garden of Eden, the Ark, the Gate of the Temple,
the Veil of the Mysteries, the vesica piscis or oval nimbus, and the Holy Grail are
important yonic symbols; the pyramid, the obelisk, the cone, the candle, the tower, the
Celtic monolith, the spire, the campanile, the Maypole, and the Sacred Spear are
symbolic of the phallus. In treating the subject of Priapic worship, too many modern
authors judge pagan standards by their own and wallow in the mire of self-created
vulgarity. The Eleusinian Mysteries--the greatest of all the ancient secret societies--
established one of the highest known standards of morality and ethics, and those
criticizing their use of phallic symbols should ponder the trenchant words of King
Edward III, "Honi soit qui mal y pense."
The obscene rites practiced by the later Bacchanalia and Dionysia were no more
representative of the standards of purity originally upheld by the Mysteries than the
orgies occasionally occurring among the adherents of Christianity till the eighteenth
century were representative of primitive Christianity. Sir William Hamilton, British
Minister at the Court of Naples, declares that in 1780, Isernia, a community of Christians
in Italy, worshiped with phallic ceremonies the pagan god Priapus under the name of St.
Cosmo. (See Two Essays on the Worship of Priapus, by Richard Payne Knight.)
Father, mother, and child constitute the natural trinity. The Mysteries glorified the home
as the supreme institution consisting of this trinity functioning as a unit. Pythagoras
likened the universe to the family, declaring that as the supreme fire of the universe was
in the midst of its heavenly bodies, so, by analogy, the supreme fire of the world was
upon its hearthstones. The Pythagorean and other schools of philosophy conceived the
one divine nature of God to manifest itself in the threefold aspect of Father, Mother, and
Child. These three constituted the Divine Family, whose dwelling place is creation and
whose natural and peculiar symbol is the 47th problem of Euclid. God the Father is spirit,
God the Mother is matter, and God the Child--the product of the two--represents the sum
of living things born out of and constituting Nature. The seed of spirit is sown in the
womb of matter, and by an immaculate (pure) conception the progeny is brought into
being. Is not this the true mystery of the Madonna holding the Holy Babe in her arms?
Who dares to say that such symbolism is improper? The mystery of life is the supreme
mystery, revealed in all of its divine dignity and glorified as Nature's per feet
achievement by the initiated sages and seers of all ages.
The prudery of today, however, declares this same mystery to be unfit for the
consideration of holy-minded people. Contrary to the dictates of reason, a standard has
been established which affirms that innocence bred of ignorance is more to be desired
than virtue born of knowledge. Eventually, however, man will learn that he need never be
ashamed of truth. Until he does learn this, he is false to his God, to his world, and to
himself. In this respect, Christianity has woefully failed in its mission. While declaring
man's body to be the living temple of the living God, in the same breath it asserts the
substances and functions of this temple to be unclean and their study defiling to the
sensitive sentiments of the righteous. By this unwholesome attitude, man's body--the
house of God--is degraded and defamed. Yet the cross itself is the oldest of phallic
emblems, and the lozenge-shaped windows of cathedrals are proof that yonic symbols
have survived the destruction of the pagan Mysteries. The very structure of the church
itself is permeated with phallicism. Remove from the Christian Church all emblems of
Priapic origin and nothing is left, for even the earth upon which it stands was, because of
its fertility, the first yonic symbol. As the presence of these emblems of the generative
processes is either unknown or unheeded by the majority, the irony of the situation is not
generally appreciated. Only those conversant with the secret language of antiquity are
capable of understanding the divine significance of these emblems.
Flowers were chosen as symbols for many reasons. The great variety of flora made it
possible to find some plant or flower which would be a suitable figure for nearly any
abstract quality or condition. A plant might be chosen because of some myth connected
with its origin, as the stories of Daphne and Narcissus; because of the peculiar environment in which it thrived, as the orchid and the fungus; because of its significant shape, as the passion flower and the Easter lily; because of its brilliance or fragrance, as the verbena and the sweet lavender; because it preserved its form indefinitely, as the everlasting flower; because of unusual characteristics as the sunflower and heliotrope, which have long been sacred because of their affinity for the sun. The plant might also be considered worthy of veneration because from its crushed leaves,petals, stalks, or roots could be extracted healing unctions, essences, or drugs affecting the nature and intelligence of human beings--such as the poppy and the ancient herbs of prophecy. The plant might also be regarded as efficacious in the cure of many diseases
because its fruit, leaves, petals, or roots bore a resemblance in shape or color to parts or
organs of the human body. For example, the distilled juices of certain species of ferns,
also the hairy moss growing upon oaks, and the thistledown were said to have the power
of growing hair; the dentaria, which resembles a tooth in shape, was said to cure the
toothache; and the palma Christi plant, because of its shape, cured all afflictions of the
The blossom is really the reproductive system of the plant and is therefore singularly
appropriate as a symbol of sexual purity--an absolute requisite of the ancient Mysteries.
Thus the flower signifies this ideal of beauty and regeneration which must ultimately take
the place of lust and degeneracy.
Of all symbolic flowers the lotus blossom of India and Egypt and the rose of the
Rosicrucians are the most important. In their symbolism these two flowers are considered
identical. The esoteric doctrines for which the Eastern lotus stands have been perpetuated
in modern Europe under the form of the rose. The rose and the lotus are yonic emblems,
signifying primarily the maternal creative mystery, while the Easter lily is considered to
The Brahmin and Egyptian initiates, who undoubtedly understood the secret systems of
spiritual culture whereby the latent centers of cosmic energy in man may be stimulated,
employed the lotus blossoms to represent the spinning vortices of spiritual energy located
at various points along the spinal column and called chakras, or whirling wheels, by the
Hindus. Seven of these chakras are of prime importance and have their individual
correspondences in the nerve ganglia and plexuses. According to the secret schools, the
sacral ganglion is called the four-petaled lotus; the prostatic plexus, the six-petaled lotus;
the epigastric plexus and navel, the ten-petaled lotus; the cardiac plexus, the twelvepetaled
lotus; the pharyngeal plexus, the sixteen-petaled locus; the cavernous plexus, the
two-petaled lotus; and the pineal gland or adjacent unknown center, the thousand-petaled
locus. The color, size, and number of petals upon the lotus are the keys to its symbolic import. A hint concerning the unfoldment of spiritual understanding according to the secret science of the Mysteries is found in the story of Aaron's rod that budded, and also in Wagner's great opera, Tannhäuser, where the budding staff of the Pope signifies the unfolding blossoms upon the sacred rod of the Mysteries--the spinal column.
The Rosicrucians used a garland of roses to signify the same spiritual vortices, which are
referred to in the Bible as the seven lamps of the candlestick and the seven churches of
Asia. In the 1642 edition of Sir Francis Bacon's History of Henry the Seventh is a
frontispiece showing Lord Bacon with Rosicrucian roses for shoe buckles.
In the Hindu system of philosophy, each petal of the lotus bears a certain symbol which
gives an added clue to the meaning of the flower. The Orientals also used the lotus plant
to signify the growth of man through the three periods of human consciousness--
ignorance, endeavor, and understanding. As the lotus exists in three elements (earth,
water, and air) so man lives in three worlds--material, intellectual, and spiritual. As the
plant, with its roots in the mud and the slime, grows upward through the water and finally
blossoms forth in the light and air, so the spiritual growth of man is upward from the
darkness of base action and desire into the light of truth and understanding, the water
serving as a symbol of the ever-changing world of illusion through which the soul must
pass in its struggle to reach the state of spiritual illumination. The rose and its Eastern
equivalent, the lotus, like all beautiful flowers, represent spiritual unfoldment and
attainment: hence, the Eastern deities are often shown seated upon the open petals of the
lotus blossoms. The lotus was also a universal motif in Egyptian art and architecture. The roofs of many temples were upheld by lotus columns, signifying the eternal wisdom; and the lotus-headed scepter--symbolic of self-unfoldment and divine prerogative--was often carried in
religious processions. When the flower had nine petals, it was symbolic of man; when
twelve, of the universe and the gods; when seven, of the planets and the law; when five,
of the senses and the Mysteries; and when three, of the chief deities and the worlds. The
heraldic rose of the Middle Ages generally has either five or ten petals thereby showing
its relationship to the spiritual mystery of man through the Pythagorean pentad and decad.
The worship of trees as proxies of Divinity was prevalent throughout the ancient world.
Temples were often built in the heart of sacred groves, and nocturnal ceremonials were
conducted under the wide-spreading branches of great trees, fantastically decorated and
festooned in honor of their patron deities. In many instances the trees themselves were
believed to possess the attributes of divine power and intelligence, and therefore
supplications were often addressed to them. The beauty, dignity, massiveness, and
strength of oaks, elms, and cedars led to their adoption as symbols of power, integrity,
permanence, virility, and divine protection.
Several ancient peoples--notably the Hindus and Scandinavians---regarded the
Macrocosm, or Grand Universe, as a divine tree growing from a single seed sown in
space. The Greeks, Persians, Chaldeans, and Japanese have legends describing the axle
tree or reed upon which the earth revolves. Kapila declares the universe to be the eternal
tree, Brahma, which springs from an imperceptible and intangible seed--the material
monad. The mediæval Qabbalists represented creation as a tree with its roots in the
reality of spirit and its branches in the illusion of tangible existence. The Sephirothic tree
of the Qabbalah was therefore inverted, with its roots in heaven and its branches upon the
earth. Madam Blavatsky notes that the Great Pyramid was considered to be a symbol of
this inverted tree, with its root at the apex of the pyramid and its branches diverging in
four streams towards the base.
The Scandinavian world-tree, Yggdrasil, supports on its branches nine spheres or
worlds,--which the Egyptians symbolized by the nine stamens of the persea or avocado.
All of these are enclosed within the mysterious tenth sphere or cosmic egg--the
definitionless Cipher of the Mysteries. The Qabbalistic tree of the Jews also consists of
nine branches, or worlds, emanating from the First Cause or Crown, which surrounds its
emanations as the shell surrounds the egg. The single source of life and the endless
diversity of its expression has a perfect analogy in the structure of the tree. The trunk
represents the single origin of all diversity; the roots, deeply imbedded in the dark earth,
are symbolic of divine nutriment; and its multiplicity of branches spreading from the
central trunk represent the infinity of universal effects dependent upon a single cause.
The tree has also been accepted as symbolic of the Microcosm, that is, man. According to
the esoteric doctrine, man first exists potentially within the body of the world-tree and
later blossoms forth into objective manifestation upon its branches According to an early
Greek Mystery myth, the god Zeus fabricated the third race of men from ash trees. The
serpent so often shown wound around the trunk of the tree usually signifies the mind--the
power of thought--and is the eternal tempter or urge which leads all rational creatures to
the ultimate discovery of reality and thus overthrows the rule of the gods. The serpent
hidden in the foliage of the universal tree represents the cosmic mind; and in the human
tree, the individualized intellect.
The concept that all life originates from seeds caused grain and various plants to be
accepted as emblematic of the human spermatozoon, and the tree was therefore symbolic
of organized life unfolding from its primitive germ. The growth of the universe from its
primitive seed may be likened to the growth of the mighty oak from the tiny acorn. While
the tree is apparently much greater than its own source, nevertheless that source contains
potentially every branch, twig, and leaf which will later be objectively unfolded by the
processes of growth.
Man's veneration for trees as symbols of the abstract qualities of wisdom and integrity
also led him to designate as trees those individuals who possessed these divine qualities
to an apparently superhuman degree. Highly illumined philosophers and priests were
therefore often referred to as trees or tree men--for example, the Druids, whose name,
according to one interpretation, signifies the men of the oak trees, or the initiates of
certain Syrian Mysteries who were called cedars; in fact it is far more credible and
probable that the famous cedars of Lebanon, cut down for the building of King
Solomon's Temple, were really illumined, initiated sages. The mystic knows that the true
supports of God's Glorious House were not the logs subject to decay but the immortal and
imperishable intellects of the tree hierophants.
Trees are repeatedly mentioned in the Old and New Testaments, and in the scriptures of
various pagan nations. The Tree of Life and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil
mentioned in Genesis, the burning bush in which the angel appeared to Moses, the
famous vine and fig tree of the New Testament, the grove of olives in the Garden of
Gethsemane where Jesus went to pray, and the miraculous tree of Revelation, which bore
twelve manners of fruit and whose leaves were for the healing of the nations, all bear
witness to the esteem in which trees were held by the scribes of Holy Writ. Buddha
received his illumination while under the bodhi tree, near Madras in India, and several of
the Eastern gods are pictured sitting in meditation beneath the spreading branches of
mighty trees. Many of the great sages and saviors carried wands, rods, or staves cut from
the wood of sacred trees, as the rods of Moses and Aaron; Gungnir--the spear of Odin--
cut from the Tree of Life; and the consecrated rod of Hermes, around which the fighting
serpents entwined themselves.
The numerous uses which the ancients made of the tree and its products are factors in its
symbolism. Its worship was, to a certain degree, based upon its usefulness. Of this J. P.
Lundy writes: "Trees occupy such an important place in the economy of nature by way of
attracting and retaining moisture, and shading the water-sources and the soil so as to
prevent barrenness and desolation; the), are so useful to man for shade, for fruit, for medicine, for fuel, for building houses and ships, for furniture, for almost every department of life, that it is no wonder that some of the more conspicuous ones, such as the oak, the pine, the palm, and the sycamore, have been madesacred and used for worship." (See Monumental Christianity.)
The early Fathers of the church sometimes used the tree to symbolize Christ. They
believed that ultimately Christianity would grow up like a mighty oak and overshadow all
other faiths of mankind. Because it annually discards its foliage, the tree was also looked
upon as an appropriate emblem of resurrection and reincarnation, for though apparently
dying each fall it blossomed forth again with renewed verdure each ensuing spring.
Under the appellations of the Tree of Life and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and
Evil is concealed the great arcanum of antiquity--the mystery of equilibrium. The Tree of
Life represents the spiritual point of balance--the secret of immortality. The Tree of the
Knowledge of Good and Evil, as its name implies, represents polarity, or unbalance--the
secret of mortality. The Qabbalists reveal this by assigning the central column of their
Sephirothic diagram to the Tree of Life and the two side branches to the Tree of the
Knowledge of Good and Evil. "Unbalanced forces perish in the void," declares the secret
work, and all is made known. The apple represents the knowledge of the procreative
processes, by the awakening of which the material universe was established. The allegory
of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden is a cosmic myth, revealing the methods of
universal and individual establishment. The literal story, accepted for so many centuries
by an unthinking world, is preposterous, but the creative mystery of which it is the
symbol is one of Nature's profoundest verities. The Ophites (serpent worshipers) revered
the Edenic snake because it was the cause of individual existence. Though humanity is
still wandering in a world of good and evil, it will ultimately attain completion and eat of
the fruit of the Tree of Life growing in the midst of the illusionary garden of worldly
things. Thus the Tree of Life is also the appointed symbol of the Mysteries, and by
partaking of its fruit man attains immortality.
The oak, the pine, the ash, the cypress, and the palm are the five trees of greatest
symbolic importance. The Father God of the Mysteries was often worshiped under the
form of an oak; the Savior God--frequently the World Martyr--in the form of a pine; the
world axis and the divine nature in humanity in the form of an ash; the goddesses, or
maternal principle, in the form of a cypress; and the positive pole of generation in the
form of the inflorescence of the mate date palm. The pine cone is a phallic symbol of
remote antiquity. The thyrsus of Bacchus--a long wand or staff surmounted by a pine
cone or cluster of grapes and entwined with ivy or grape-vine leaves, sometimes ribbons-
-signifies that the wonders of Nature may only be accomplished by the aid of solar
virility, as symbolized by the cone or grapes. In the Phrygian Mysteries, Atys--the everpresent
sun-savior--dies under the branches of the pine tree (an allusion to the solar globe
at the winter solstice) and for this reason the pine tree was sacred to his cult. This tree
was also sacred in the Mysteries of Dionysos and Apollo.
Among the ancient Egyptians and Jews the acacia, or tamarisk, was held in the highest
religious esteem; and among modern Masons, branches of acacia, cypress, cedar, or
evergreen are still regarded as most significant emblems. The shittim-wood used by the
children of Israel in the construction of the Tabernacle and the Ark of the Covenant was a
species of acacia. In describing this sacred tree, Albert Pike has written: "The genuine
acacia, also, is the thorny tamarisk, the same tree which grew around the body of Osiris.
It was a sacred tree among the Arabs, who made of it the idol Al-Uzza, which
Mohammed destroyed. It is abundant as a bush in the desert of Thur; and of it the 'crown
of thorns' was composed, which was set on the forehead of Jesus of Nazareth. It is a fit
type of immortality on account of its tenacity of life; for it has been known, when planted
as a door-post, to take root again and shoot out budding boughs above the threshold."
(See Morals and Dogma.)
It is quite possible that much of the veneration accorded the acacia is due to the peculiar
attributes of the mimosa, or sensitive plant, with which it was often identified by the
ancients. There is a Coptic legend to the effect that the sensitive plant was the first of all
trees or shrubs to worship Christ. The rapid growth of the acacia and its beauty have also
caused it to be regarded as emblematic of fecundity and generation.
The symbolism of the acacia is susceptible of four distinct interpretations: (1) it is the
emblem of the vernal equinox--the annual resurrection of the solar deity; (2) under the
form of the sensitive plant which shrinks from human touch, the acacia signifies purity
and innocence, as one of the Greek meanings of its name implies; (3) it fittingly typifies
human immortality and regeneration, and under the form of the evergreen represents that
immortal part of man which survives the destruction of his visible nature; (4) it is the
ancient and revered emblem of the Mysteries, and candidates entering the tortuous
passageways in which the ceremonials were given carried in their hands branches of
these sacred plants or small clusters of sanctified flowers.
Albert G. Mackey calls attention to the fact that each of the ancient Mysteries had its own
peculiar plant sacred to the gods or goddesses in whose honor the rituals were celebrated.
These sacred plants were later adopted as the symbols of the various degrees in which
they were used. Thus, in the Mysteries of Adonis, lettuce was sacred; in the Brahmin and
Egyptian rites, the lotus; among the Druids, the mistletoe; and among certain of the Greek
Mysteries, the myrtle. (See Encyclopædia of Freemasonry.)
As the legend of CHiram Abiff is based upon the ancient Egyptian Mystery ritual of the
murder and resurrection of Osiris, it is natural that the sprig of acacia should be preserved
as symbolic of the resurrection of CHiram. The chest containing the body of Osiris was
washed ashore near Byblos and lodged in the roots of a tamarisk, or acacia, which,
growing into a mighty tree, enclosed within its trunk the body of the murdered god. This
is undoubtedly the origin of the story that a sprig of acacia marks the grave of CHiram.
The mystery of the evergreen marking the grave of the dead sun god is also perpetuated
in the Christmas tree.
The apricot and quince are familiar yonic symbols, while the bunch of grapes and the fig
are phallic. The pomegranate is the mystic fruit of the Eleusinian rites; by eating it,
Prosperine bound herself to the realms of Pluto. The fruit here signifies the sensuous life
which, once tasted, temporarily deprives man of immortality. Also on account of its vast
number of seeds the pomegranate was often employed to represent natural fecundity. For
the same reason, Jacob Bryant in his Ancient Mythology notes that the ancients
recognized in this fruit an appropriate emblem of the Ark of the Deluge, which contained the seeds of the new human race.
Among the ancient Mysteries the pomegranate was also considered to be a divine symbol of such peculiar significance that its true explanation could not be divulged. It was termed by the Cabiri "the forbidden secret." Many Greek gods and goddesses are depicted holding the fruit or flower of the pomegranate in their hands, evidently to signify that they are givers of life and plenty.
Pomegranate capitals were placed upon the pillars of Jachin and Boaz standing in front of
King Solomon's Temple; and by the order of Jehovah, pomegranate blossoms were
embroidered upon the bottom of the High Priest's ephod.
Strong wine made from the juice of the grape was looked upon as symbolic of the false
life and false light of the universe, for it was produced by a false process--artificial
fermentation. The rational faculties are clouded by strong drink, and the animal nature,
liberated from bondage, controls the individual--facts which necessarily were of the
greatest spiritual significance. As the lower nature is the eternal tempter seeking co lead
man into excesses which inhibit the spiritual faculties, the grape and its product were
used to symbolize the Adversary.
The juice of the grape was thought by the Egyptians to resemble human blood more
closely than did any other substance. In fact, they believed that the grape secured its life
from the blood of the dead who had been buried in the earth. According to Plutarch, "The
priests of the sun at Heliopolis never carry any wine into their temples, * * * and if they
made use of it at any time in their libations to the gods, it was not because they looked
upon it as in its own nature acceptable to them; but they poured it upon their altars as the
blood of those enemies who formerly had fought against them. For they look upon the
vine to have first sprung out of the earth after it was fattened with the carcasses of those
who fell in the wars against the gods. And this, say they, is the reason why drinking its
juice in great quantities makes men mad and beside themselves, filling them as it were
with the blood of their own ancestors." (See Isis and Osiris.)
Among some cults the state of intoxication was viewed as a condition somewhat akin to
ecstasy, for the individual was believed to be possessed by the Universal Spirit of Life,
whose chosen vehicle was the vine. In the Mysteries, the grape was often used to
symbolize lust and debauchery because of its demoralizing effect upon the emotional
nature. The fact was recognized, however, that fermentation was the certain evidence of
the presence of the solar fire, hence the grape was accepted as the proper symbol of the
Solar Spirit--the giver of divine enthusiasm. In a somewhat similar manner, Christians
have accepted wine as the emblem of the blood of Christ, partaking of it in Holy
Communion. Christ, the exoteric emblem of the Solar Spirit, said, "I am the vine." He
was therefore worshiped with the wine of ecstasy in the same manner as were his pagan
prototypes--Bacchus, Dionysos, Arys, and Adonis.
The mandragora officinarum, or mandrake, is accredited with possessing the most
remarkable magical powers. Its narcotic properties were recognized by the Greeks, who
employed it to deaden pain during surgical operations, and it has been identified also with
baaras, the mystic herb used by the Jews for casting out demons. In the Jewish Wars,
Josephus describes the method of securing the baaras, which he declares emits flashes of
lightning and destroys all who seek to touch it, unless they proceed according to certain
rules supposedly formulated by King Solomon himself.
The occult properties of the mandrake, while little understood, have been responsible for
the adoption of the plant as a talisman capable of increasing the value or quantity of
anything with which it was associated. As a phallic charm, the mandrake was considered
to be an infallible cure for sterility. It was one of the Priapic symbols which the Knights
Templars were accused of worshiping. The root of the plant closely resembles a human
body and often bore the outlines of the human head, arms, or legs. This striking similarity
between the body of man and the mandragora is one of the puzzles of natural science and
is the real basis for the veneration in which this plant was held. In Isis Unveiled, Madam
Blavatsky notes that the mandragora seems to occupy upon earth the point where the
vegetable and animal kingdoms meet, as the zoophites and polypi do in die sea. This
thought opens a vast field of speculation concerning the nature of this animal-plant.
According to a popular superstition, the mandrake shrank from being touched and, crying
out with a human voice, clung desperately to the soil in which it was imbedded. Anyone
who heard its cry while plucking it either immediately died or went mad. To circumvent
this tragedy, it was customary to dig around the roots of the mandrake until the plant was
thoroughly loosened and then to tie one end of a cord about the stalk and fasten the other
end to a dog. The dog, obeying his master's call, thereupon dragged the root from the
earth and became the victim of the mandragora curse. When once uprooted, the plant
could be handled with immunity.
During the Middle Ages, mandrake charms brought great prices and an art was evolved
by which the resemblance between the mandragora root and the human body was
considerably accentuated. Like most superstitions, the belief in the peculiar powers of the
mandrake was founded upon an ancient secret doctrine concerning the true nature of the
plant. "It is slightly narcotic," says Eliphas Levi, "and an aphrodisiacal virtue was
ascribed to it by the ancients, who represented it as being sought by Thessalian sorcerers
for the composition of philtres. Is this root the umbilical vestige of our terrestrial origin,
as a certain magical mysticism has suggested? We dare not affirm it seriously, but it is
true all the same that man issued from the slime of earth and his first appearance must
have been in the form of a rough sketch. The analogies of Nature compel us to admit the
notion, at least as a possibility. The first men were, in this case, a family of gigantic,
sensitive mandrogores, animated by the sun, who rooted themselves up from the earth."
(See Transcendental Magic.)
The homely onion was revered by the Egyptians as a symbol of the universe because its
rings and layers represented the concentric planes into which creation was divided
according to the Hermetic Mysteries. It was also regarded as possessing great medicinal
virtue. Because of peculiar properties resulting from its pungency, the garlic plant was a
powerful agent in transcendental magic. To this day no better medium has been found for
the treatment of obsession. Vampirism and certain forms of insanity--especially those
resulting from mediumship and the influences of elemental larvæ--respond immediately
to the use of garlic. In the Middle Ages, its presence in a house was believed to ward off
all evil powers. Trifoliate plants, such as the shamrock, were employed by many religious cults to represent the principle of the Trinity. St. Patrick is supposed to have used the shamrock to illustrate this doctrine of the triune Divinity. The reason for the additional sanctity
conferred by a fourth leaf is that the fourth principle of the Trinity is man, and the
presence of this leaf therefore signifies the redemption of humanity.
Wreaths were worn during initiation into the Mysteries and the reading of the sacred
books to signify that these processes were consecrated to the deities. On the symbolism
of wreaths, Richard Payne Knight writes: "Instead of beads, wreaths of foliage, generally
of laurel, olive, myrtle, ivy, or oak, appear upon coins, sometimes encircling the
symbolical figures, and sometimes as chaplets upon their heads. All these were sacred to
some peculiar personifications of the deity, and significant of some particular attributes,
and, in general, all evergreens were Dionysiac planes; that is, symbols of the generative
power, signifying perpetuity of youth and vigor, as the circles of beads and diadems
signify perpetuity of existence. (See Symbolical Language of Ancient Art and
The alchemists were went to symbolize their metals by means of a tree, to indicate that all seven were branches dependent upon the single trunk of solar life. As the Seven Spirits depend upon God and are branches of a tree of which He is the root, trunk, and the spiritual earth from which the root derives its nourishment, so the single trunk of divine life and power nourishes all the multitudinous forms of which the universe is composed.
In Gloria Mundi, there is contained an important thought concerning the plantlike growth of metals: "All trees, herbs, stones, metals, and minerals grow and attain to perfection without being necessarily touched by any human hand: for the seed is raised up from the ground,
puts forth flowers, and bears fruit, simply through the agency of natural influences. As it is with plants, so it is with metals. While they lie in the heart of the earth, in their natural ore, they grow and are developed, day by day, through the influence of the four elements: their fire is the splendor of the Sun and Moon; the earth conceives in her womb the splendor of the Sun, and by it the seeds of the metals are well and equally warmed, just like the grain in the fields. * * * For as each tree of the field has its own peculiar shape, appearance, and fruit, so each mountain bears its own particular ore; those stones and that earth being the soil in which the metals grow." (See Translation of 1893.)
THE MAGIC OF METALS AND GEMS
The Primitive custom of worshiping the gods in the form of heaps of stones gave place to the practice of erecting phallic pillars, or cones, in their honor. These columns differed widely in size and appearance. Some were of gigantic proportions and were richly ornamented with inscriptions or likenesses of the gods and heroes; others--like the votive offerings of the Babylonians--were but a few inches high, without ornament, and merely bore a brief statement of the purpose for which they had been prepared or a hymn to the god of the temple in which they were placed. These small baked clay cones were identical in their symbolic meaning with the large hermæ set up by the roadside and in other public places. Later the upper end of the column was surmounted by a human head. Often two projections, or tenons, corresponding to
shoulders were placed, one on either side, to support the wreaths of flowers adorning the columns. Offerings, usually of food, were placed near the hermæ. Occasionally these columns were used to uphold roofs and were numbered among the art objects ornamenting the villas of wealthy Romans.
According to the teachings of the Mysteries, the rays of the celestial bodies, striking the
crystallizing influences of the lower world, become the various elements. Partaking of the
astral virtues of their source, these elements neutralize certain unbalanced forms of
celestial activity and, when properly combined, contribute much to the well-being of
man. Little is known today concerning these magical properties, but the modern world
may yet find it profitable to consider the findings of the early philosophers who
determined these relationships by extensive experimentation. Out of such research arose
the practice of identifying the metals with the bones of the various deities. For example,
the Egyptians, according to Manetho, considered iron to be the bone of Mars and the
lodestone the bone of Horus. By analogy, lead would be the physical skeleton of Saturn,
copper of Venus, quicksilver of Mercury, gold of the sun, silver of the moon, and
antimony of the earth. It is possible that uranium will prove to be the metal of Uranus and radium to be the metal of Neptune.
The four Ages of the Greek mystics--the Golden Age, the Silver Age, the Bronze Age,
and the Iron Age--are metaphoric expressions referring to the four major periods in the
life of all things. In the divisions of the day they signify dawn, midday, sunset, and
midnight; in the duration of gods, men, and universes, they denote the periods of birth,
growth, maturity, and decay. The Greek Ages also bear a close correspondence to the
four Yugas of the Hindus: Krita-Yuga, Treta-Yuga, Dvapara-Yuga, and Kali-Yuga. Their
method of calculation is described by Ullamudeian as follows: "In each of the 12 signs
there are 1800 minutes; multiply this number by 12 you have 21600; e.g. 1800 X
12=21600. Multiply this 21600 by 80 and it will give 1,728,000, which is the duration of
the first age, called Krita-Yuga. If the same number be multiplied by 60, it will give
1,296,000, the years of the second age, Treta-Yuga. The same number multiplied by 40
gives 864,000, the length of the third age, Dvapara-Yuga. The same multiplied by 20
gives 432,000, the fourth age, Kali-Yuga." (It will be noted that these multipliers decrease
in inverse ratio to the Pythagorean tetractys: 1, 2, 3, and 4.)
H. P. Blavatsky declares that Orpheus taught his followers how to affect a whole
audience by means of a lodestone, and that Pythagoras paid particular attention to the
color and nature of precious stones. She adds: "The Buddhists assert that the sapphire
produces peace of mind, equanimity, and chases all evil thoughts by establishing a
healthy circulation in man. So does an electric battery, with its well-directed fluid, say
our electricians. 'The sapphire,' say the Buddhists, 'will open barred doors and dwellings
(for the spirit of man); it produces a desire for prayer, and brings with it more peace than
any other gem; but he who would wear it must lead a pure and holy life."' (See Isis
Mythology abounds with accounts of magical rings and talismanic jewels. In the second
book of his Republic, Plato describes a ring which, when the collet was turned in ward,
rendered its wearer invisible. With this Gyges, the shepherd, secured for himself the
throne of Lydia. Josephus also describes magical rings designed by Moses and King
Solomon, and Aristotle mentions one which brought love and honor to its possessor. In
his chapter dealing with the subject, Henry Cornelius Agrippa not only mentions the
same rings, but states, upon the authority of Philostratus Jarchus, that Apollonius of
Tyana extended his life to over 20 years with the aid of seven magical rings presented to
him by an East Indian prince. Each of these seven rings was set with a gem partaking of
the nature of one of the seven ruling planets of the week, and by daily changing the rings
Apollonius protected himself against sickness and death by the intervention of the
planetary influences. The philosopher also instructed his disciples in the virtues of these
talismanic jewels, considering such information to be indispensable to the theurgist.
Agrippa describes the preparation of magical rings as follows: "When any Star [planet]
ascends fortunately, with the fortunate aspect or conjunction of the Moon, we must take a
stone and herb that is under that Star, and make a ring of the metal that is suitable to this
Star, and in it fasten the stone, putting the herb or root under it-not omitting the
inscriptions of images, names, and characters, as also the proper suffumigations." (See
Three Books of Occult Philosophy.)
The ring has long been regarded as the symbol of attainment, perfection, and
immortality-the last because the circlet of precious metal had neither beginning nor end.
In the Mysteries, rings chased to resemble a serpent with its tail in its mouth were worn
by the initiates as material evidence of the position reached by them in the order. Signet
rings, engraved with certain secret emblems, were worn by the hierophants, and it was
not uncommon for a messenger to prove that he was the official representative of a prince
or other dignitary by bringing with his message either an impression from his master's
ring or the signet itself. The wedding ring originally was intended to imply that in the
nature of the one who wore it the state of equilibrium and completion had been attained.
This plain band of gold therefore bore witness of the union of the Higher Self (God) with
the lower self (Nature) and the ceremony consummating this indissoluble blending of
Divinity and humanity in the one nature of the initiated mystic constituted the hermetic
marriage of the Mysteries.
In describing the regalia of a magician, Eliphas Levi declares that on Sunday (the day of
the sun) he should carry in his right hand a golden wand, set with a ruby or chrysolite; on
Monday (the day of the moon) he should wear a collar of three strands consisting of
pearls, crystals, and selenites; on Tuesday (the day of Mars) he should carry a wand of
magnetized steel and a ring of the same metal set with an amethyst, on Wednesday (the
day of Mercury) he should wear a necklace of pearls or glass beads containing mercury,
and a ring set with an agate; on Thursday (the day of Jupiter) he should carry a wand of
glass or resin and wear a ring set with an emerald or a sapphire; on Friday (the day of
Venus) he should carry a wand of polished copper and wear a ring set with a turquoise
and a crown or diadem decorated with lapis lazuli and beryl; and on Saturday (the day of
Saturn) he should carry a wand ornamented with onyx stone and wear a ring set with
onyx and a chain about the neck formed of lead. (See The Magical Ritual of the Sanctum
Paracelsus, Agrippa, Kircher, Lilly, and numerous other magicians and astrologers have
tabulated the gems and stones corresponding to the various planets and zodiacal signs.
The following list has been compiled from their writings. To the sun is assigned the
carbuncle, ruby, garnet---especially the pyrope--and other fiery stones, sometimes the
diamond; to the moon, the pearl, selenite, and other forms of crystal; to Saturn, the onyx,
jasper, topaz, and sometimes the lapis lazuli; to Jupiter, the sapphire, emerald, and
marble; to Mars, the amethyst, hyacinth, lodestone, sometimes the diamond; to Venus,
the turquoise, beryl, emerald, and sometimes the pearl, alabaster, coral, and carnelian; to
Mercury, the chrysolite, agate, and variegated marble.
To the zodiac the same authorities assigned the following gems and stones: To Aries the
sardonyx, bloodstone, amethyst, and diamond; to Taurus the carnelian, turquoise,
hyacinth, sapphire, moss agate, and emerald; to Gemini the topaz, agate, chrysoprase,
crystal, and aquamarine; to Cancer the topaz, chalcedony, black onyx, moonstone, pearl,
cat's-eye, crystal, and sometimes the emerald; to Leo the jasper, sardonyx, beryl, ruby,
chrysolite, amber, tourmaline, sometimes the diamond; to Virgo the emerald, camelian,
jade, chrysolite, and sometimes the pink jasper and hyacinth; to Libra the beryl, sardius,
coral, lapis lazuli, opal, and sometimes the diamond; to Scorpio the amethyst, beryl,
sardonyx, aquamarine, carbuncle, lodestone, topaz, and malachite; to Sagittarius die
hyacinth, topaz, chrysolite, emerald, carbuncle, and turquoise; to Capricorn the
chrysoprase, ruby, malachite, black onyx, white onyx, jet, and moonstone; to Aquarius
the crystal, sapphire, garnet, zircon, and opal; to Pisces the sapphire, jasper, chrysolite,
moonstone, and amethyst
Both the magic mirror and the crystal ball are symbols little understood. Woe to that
benighted mortal who accepts literally the stories circulated concerning them! He will
discover--often at the cost of sanity and health--that sorcery and philosophy, while often
confused, have nothing in common. The Persian Magi carried mirrors as an emblem of
the material sphere which reflects Divinity from its every part. The crystal ball, long
misused as a medium for the cultivation of psychical powers, is a threefold symbol: (1) it
signifies the crystalline Universal Egg in whose transparent depths creation exists; (2) it
is a proper figure of Deity previous to Its immersion in matter; (3) it signifies the ætheric
sphere of the world in whose translucent essences is impressed and preserved the perfect
image of all terrestrial activity.
Meteors, or rocks from heaven, were considered tokens of divine favor and enshrined as
evidence of a pact between the gods and the community in which they fell. Curiously
marked or chipped natural stones are occasionally found. In China there is a slab of
marble the grain of which forms a perfect likeness of the Chinese dragon. The
Oberammergau stone, chipped by Nature into a close resemblance to the popular
conception of the face of Christ, is so remarkable that even the crowned heads of Europe
requested the privilege of beholding it. Stones of such nature were held in the highest
esteem among primitive peoples and even today exert a wide influence upon the
The number five was peculiarly associated by the Pythagoreans with the art of healing, and the pentagram,or five-pointed star, was to them the symbol of health. The above figure represents a magical ring set with a talismanic gem bearing the pentalpha, or star formed by five different positions of the Greek Alpha. On this subject Mackey writes: "The disciples of Pythagoras, who were indeed its real inventors, placed within each of its interior angles one of the letters of the Greek word yzj, or the Latin one SALUS, both of which signify health; and thus it was made the talisman of health. They placed it at the beginning of their epistles as a greeting to invoke a secure health to their correspondent. But its use was not confined to the disciples of Pythagoras. As a talisman, it was employed all over the East as a charm to resist evil spirits."
STONES, METALS AND GEMS
EACH of the four primary elements as taught by the early philosophers has its analogue
in the quaternary terrestrial constitution of man. The rocks and earth correspond to the
bones and flesh; the water to the various fluids; the air to the gases; and the fire to the
bodily heat. Since the bones are the framework that sustains the corporeal structure, they
may be regarded as a fitting emblem of the spirit--that divine foundation which supports
the composite fabric of mind, soul, and body. To the initiate, the skeleton of death
holding in bony fingers the reaper's scythe denotes Saturn (Kronos), the father of the
gods, carrying the sickle with which he mutilated Ouranos, his own sire.
In the language of the Mysteries, the spirits of men are the powdered bones of Saturn.
The latter deity was always worshiped under the symbol of the base or footing, inasmuch
as he was considered to be the substructure upholding creation. The myth of Saturn has
its historical basis in the fragmentary records preserved by the early Greeks and
Phoenicians concerning a king by that name who ruled over the ancient continent of
Hyperborea. Polaris, Hyperborea, and Atlantis, because they lie buried beneath the
continents and oceans of the modern world, have frequently been symbolized as rocks
supporting upon their broad surfaces new lands, races, and empires. According to the
Scandinavian Mysteries, the stones and cliffs were formed from the bones of Ymir, the
primordial giant of the seething clay, while to the Hellenic mystics the rocks were the
bones of the Great Mother, Gæa.
After the deluge sent by the gods to destroy mankind at the close of the Iron Age, only
Deucalion and Pyrrha were left alive. Entering a ruined sanctuary to pray, they were
directed by an oracle to depart from the temple and with heads veiled and garments
unbound cast behind them the bones of their mother. Construing the cryptic message of
the god to mean that the earth was the Great Mother of all creatures, Deucalion picked up
loose rocks and, bidding Pyrrha do likewise, cast them behind him. From these rocks
there sprang forth a new and stalwart race of human beings, the rocks thrown by
Deucalion becoming men and those thrown by Pyrrha becoming women. In this allegory
is epitomized the mystery of human evolution; for spirit, by ensouling matter, becomes
that indwelling power which gradually but sequentially raises the mineral to the status of
the plant; the plant to the plane of the animal; the animal to the dignity of man; and man
to the estate of the gods.
The solar system was organized by forces operating inward from the great ring of the
Saturnian sphere; and since the beginnings of all things were under the control of Saturn,
the most reasonable inference is that the first forms of worship were dedicated to him and
his peculiar symbol--the stone. Thus the intrinsic nature of Saturn is synonymous with
that spiritual rock which is the enduring foundation of the Solar Temple, and has its
antitypc or lower octave in that terrestrial rock--the planet Earth--which sustains upon its
jagged surface the diversified genera of mundane life.
Although its origin is uncertain, litholatry undoubtedly constitutes one of the earliest
forms of religious expression. "Throughout all the world, " writes Godfrey Higgins, "the
first object of Idolatry seems to have been a plain, unwrought stone, placed in the ground,
as an emblem of the generative or procreative powers of nature." (See The Celtic Druids.)
Remnants of stone worship are distributed over the greater part of the earth's surface, a
notable example being the menhirs at Carnac, in Brittany, where several thousand
gigantic uncut stones are arranged in eleven orderly rows. Many of these monoliths stand
over twenty feet out of the sand in which they are embedded, and it has been calculated
that some of the larger ones weigh as much as 250,000 pounds. By some it is believed
that certain of the menhirs mark the location of buried treasure, but the most plausible
view is that which regards Carnac as a monument to the astronomical knowledge of
antiquity. Scattered throughout the British Isles and Europe, these cairns, dolmens,
menhirs, and cistvaens stand as mute but eloquent testimonials to the existence and
achievements of races now extinct.
Of particular interest are the rocking or logan stones, which evince the mechanical skill
of these early peoples. These relics consist of enormous boulders poised upon one or two
small points in such a manner that the slightest pressure will sway them, but the greatest
effort is not sufficient to overthrow them. These were called living stones by the Greeks
and Latins, the most famous one being the Gygorian stone in the Strait of Gibraltar.
Though so perfectly balanced that it could be moved with the stalk of a daffodil, this rock
could not be upset by the combined weight of many men. There is a legend that Hercules
raised a rocking stone over the graves of the two sons of Boreas whom he had killed in
combat. This stone was so delicately poised that it swayed back and forth with the wind,
but no application of force could overturn it. A number of logan stones have been found
in Britain, traces of one no longer standing having been discovered in Stonehenge. (See
The Celtic Druids.) It is interesting to note that the green stones forming the inner ring of
Stonehenge are believed to have been brought from Africa.
In many cases the monoliths are without carving or inscription, for they undoubtedly
antedate both the use of tools and the art of writing. In some instances the stones have
been trued into columns or obelisks, as in the runic monuments and the Hindu lingams
and sakti stones; in other instances they are fashioned into rough likenesses of the human
body, as in the Easter Island statues, or into the elaborately sculptured figures of the
Central American Indians and the Khmers of Cambodia. The first rough-stone images can
hardly be considered as effigies of any particular deity but rather as the crude effort of
primitive man to portray in the enduring qualities of stone the procreative attributes of
abstract Divinity. An instinctive recognition of the stability of Deity has persisted through
all the intervening ages between primitive man and modem civilization. Ample proof of
the survival of litholatry in the Christian faith is furnished by allusions to the rock of
refuge, the rock upon which the church of Christ was to be founded, the corner stone
which the builders rejected, Jacob's stony pillow which he set up and anointed with oil,
the sling stone of David, the rock Moriah upon which the altar of King Solomon's
Temple was erected, the white stone of Revelation, and the Rock of Ages.
Stones were highly venerated by prehistoric peoples primarily because of their
usefulness. Jagged bits of stone were probably man's first weapons; rocky cliffs and crags
constituted his first fortifications, and from these vantage points he hurled loose boulders
down upon marauders. In caverns or rude huts fashioned from slabs of rock the first
humans protected themselves from the rigors of the elements. Stones were set up as
markers and monuments to primitive achievement; they were also placed upon the graves
of the dead, probably as a precautionary measure to prevent the depredations of wild
beasts. During migrations, it was apparently customary for primitive peoples to carry
about with them stones taken from their original habitat. As the homeland or birthplace of
a race was considered sacred, these stones were emblematic of that universal regard
shared by all nations for the place of their geniture. The discovery that fire could be
produced by striking together two pieces of stone augmented man's reverence for stones,
but ultimately the hitherto unsuspected world of wonders opened by the newly discovered
element of fire caused pyrolatry to supplant stone worship. The dark, cold Father--stone--
gave birth out of itself to the bright, glowing Son-fire; and the newly born flame, by
displacing its parent, became the most impressive and mysterious of all religiophilosophic
symbols, widespread and enduring through the ages.
Saturn, having been warned by his parents that one of his own children would dethrone him, devoured each child at birth. At last Rhea, his wife, in order to save Jupiter, her sixth child substituted for him a rock enveloped in swaddling clothes--which Saturn, ignorant of the deception practiced upon him, immediately swallowed. Jupiter was concealed on the island of Crete until he attained manhood, when he forced his father to disgorge the five children he had eaten. The stone swallowed by Saturn in lieu of his youngest son was placed by Jupiter at Delphi, where it was held in great veneration and was daily anointed.
The body of every thing was likened to a rock, trued either into a cube or more ornately
chiseled to form a pedestal, while the spirit of everything was likened to the elaborately
carved figure surmounting it. Accordingly, altars were erected as a symbol of the lower
world, and fires were kept burning upon them to represent that spiritual essence
illuminating the body it surmounted. The square is actually one surface of a cube, its
corresponding figure in plane geometry, and its proper philosophic symbol.
Consequently, when considering the earth as an element and not as a body, the Greeks,
Brahmins, and Egyptians always referred to its four corners, although they were fully
aware that the planet itself was a sphere.
Because their doctrines were the sure foundation of all knowledge and the first step in the
attainment of conscious immortality, the Mysteries were often represented as cubical or
pyramidal stones. Conversely, these stones themselves became the emblem of that
condition of self-achieved godhood. The unchangeability of the stone made it an
appropriate emblem of God--the immovable and unchangeable Source of Existence--and
also of the divine sciences--the eternal revelation of Himself to mankind. As the
personification of the rational intellect, which is the true foundation of human life,
Mercury, or Hermes, was symbolized in a like manner. Square or cylindrical pillars,
surmounted by a bearded head of Hermes and called hermæ, were set up in public places.
Terminus, a form of Jupiter and god of boundaries and highways, from whose name is
derived the modern word terminal, was also symbolized by an upright stone, sometimes
ornamented with the head of the god, which was placed at the borders of provinces and
the intersections of important roads.
The philosopher's stone is really the philosophical stone, for philosophy is truly likened
to a magic jewel whose touch transmutes base substances into priceless gems like itself.
Wisdom is the alchemist's powder of projection which transforms many thousand times
its own weight of gross ignorance into the precious substance of enlightenment.
THE TABLETS OF THE LAW
While upon the heights of Mount Sinai, Moses received from Jehovah two tablets bearing
the characters of the Decalogue traced by the very finger of Israel's God. These tables
were fashioned from the divine sapphire, Schethiyâ, which the Most High, after removing
from His own throne, had cast into the Abyss to become the foundation and generator of
the worlds. This sacred stone, formed of heavenly dew, was sundered by the breath of
God, and upon the two parts were drawn in black fire the figures of the Law. These
precious inscriptions, aglow with celestial splendor, were delivered by the Lord on the
Sabbath day into the hands of Moses, who was able to read the illumined letters from the
reverse side because of the transparency of the great jewel. (See The Secret Doctrine in
Israel or The Zohar for details of this legend.)
The Ten Commandments are the ten shining gems placed by the Holy One in the
sapphire sea of Being, and in the depths of matter the reflections of these jewels are seen
as the laws governing the sublunary spheres. They are the sacred ten by which the
Supreme Deity has stamped His will upon the face of Nature. This same decad was
celebrated by the Pythagoreans under the form of the tetractys--that triangle of spermatic
points which reveals to the initiated the whole working of the cosmic scheme; for ten is
the number of perfection, the key to creation, and the proper symbol of God, man, and the
Because of the idolatry of the Israelites, Moses deemed the people unworthy to receive
the sapphire tables; hence he destroyed them, that the Mysteries of Jehovah should not be
violated. For the original set Moses substituted two tablets of rough stone into the surface
of which he had cut ten ancient letters. While the former tables--partaking of the divinity
of the Tree of Life--blazed forth eternal verities, the latter--partaking of the nature of the
Tree of Good and Evil--revealed only temporal truths. Thus the ancient tradition of Israel
returned again to heaven, leaving only its shadow with the children of the twelve tribes.
One of the two tables of stone delivered by the Lawgiver to his followers stood for the
oral, the other for the written traditions upon which the Rabbinical School was founded.
Authorities differ widely as to the size and substance of the inferior tables. Some describe
them as being so small that they could be held in the hollow of a man's hand; others
declare that each table was ten or twelve cubits in length and of enormous weight. A few
even deny that the tables were of stone, maintaining that they were of a wood called sedr,
which, according to the Mohammedans, grows profusely in Paradise.
The two tables signify respectively the superior and the inferior worlds--the paternal and
the maternal formative principles. In their undivided state they represent the Cosmic
Androgyne. The breaking of the tables signifies obscurely the separation of the superior
and the inferior spheres and also the division of the sexes. In the religious processionals
of the Greeks and Egyptians an ark or ship was carried which contained stone tablets,
cones, and vessels of various shapes emblematic of the procreative processes. The Ark of
the Israelites--which was patterned after the sacred chests of the Isiac Mysteries--
contained three holy objects, each having an important phallic interpretation: the pot of
manna, the rod that budded, and the Tablets of the Law--the first, second, and third
Principles of the Creative Triad. The manna, the blossoming staff, and the stone tables
are also appropriate images respectively of the Qabbalah, the Mishna, and the written
law--the spirit, soul, and body of Judaism. When placed in King Solomon's Everlasting
House, the Ark of the Covenant contained only the Tablets of the Law. Does this indicate
that even at that early date the secret tradition had been lost and the letter of the
revelation alone remained?
As representing the power that fabricated the lower, or Demiurgic, sphere, the tablets of
stone were sacred to Jehovah in contradistinction to the tablets of sapphire that signified
the potency that established the higher, or celestial, sphere. Without doubt the Mosaic
tablets have their prototype in the stone pillars or obelisks placed on either side of the
entrance to pagan temples. These columns may pertain to that remote time when men
worshiped the Creator through His zodiacal sign of Gemini, the symbol of which is still
the phallic pillars of the Celestial Twins. "The Ten Commandments, writes Hargrave
Jennings, "are inscribed in two groups of five each, in columnar form. The five to the
right (looking from the altar) mean the 'Law'; the five to the left mean the 'Prophets.' The
right stone is masculine, the left stone is feminine. They correspond to the two disjoined
pillars of stone (or towers) in the front of every cathedral, and of every temple in the
heathen times." (See The Rosicrucians: Their Rites and Mysteries.) The same author
states that the Law is masculine because it was delivered direct from the Deity, while the
Prophets, or Gospels, were feminine because born through the nature of man.
The right Tablet of the Law further signifies Jachin--the white pillar of light; the left
Tablet, Boaz--the shadowy pillar of darkness. These were the names of the two pillars
cast from brass set up on the porch of King Solomon's Temple. They were eighteen
cubits in height and beautifully ornamented with wreaths of chainwork, nets, and
pomegranates. On the top of each pillar was a large bowl--now erroneously called a ball
or globe--one of the bowls probably containing fire and the other water. The celestial
globe (originally the bowl of fire), surmounting the right-hand column (Jachin), symbolized the divine man; the terrestrial globe (the bowl of water), surmounting the lefthand
column (Boaz), signified the earthly man. These two pillars respectively connote
also the active and the passive expressions of Divine Energy, the sun and the moon,
sulphur and salt, good and bad, light and darkness. Between them is the door leading into
the House of God, and standing thus at the gates of Sanctuary they are a reminder that
Jehovah is both an androgynous and an anthropomorphic deity. As two parallel columns
they denote the zodiacal signs of Cancer and Capricorn, which were formerly placed in
the chamber of initiation to represent birth and death--the extremes of physical life. They
accordingly signify the summer and the winter solstices, now known to Freemasons
under the comparatively modern appellation of the "two St. Johns."
In the mysterious Sephirothic Tree of the Jews, these two pillars symbolize Mercy and
Severity. Standing before the gate of King Solomon's Temple, these columns had the
same symbolic import as the obelisks before the sanctuaries of Egypt. When interpreted
Qabbalistically, the names of the two pillars mean "In strength shall My House be established. "In the splendor of mental and spiritual
illumination, the High Priest stood between the pillars as a mute witness to the perfect
virtue of equilibrium--that hypothetical point equidistant from all extremes. He thus
personified the divine nature of man in the midst of his compound constitution--the
mysterious Pythagorean Monad in the presence of the Duad. On one side towered the
stupendous column of the intellect; on the other, the brazen pillar of the flesh. Midway
between these two stands the glorified wise man, but he cannot reach this high estate
without first suffering upon the cross made by joining these pillars together. The early
Jews occasionally represented the two pillars, Jachin and Boaz, as the legs of Jehovah,
thereby signifying to the modern philosopher that Wisdom and Love, in their most
exalted sense, support the whole order of creation--both mundane and supermundane.
The Human Body in Symbolism
THE oldest, the most profound, the most universal of all symbols is the human body. The
Greeks, Persians, Egyptians, and Hindus considered a philosophical analysis of man's
triune nature to be an indispensable part of ethical and religious training. The Mysteries
of every nation taught that the laws, elements, and powers of the universe were
epitomized in the human constitution; that everything which existed outside of man had
its analogue within man. The universe, being immeasurable in its immensity and
inconceivable in its profundity, was beyond mortal estimation. Even the gods themselves
could comprehend but a part of the inaccessible glory which was their source. When
temporarily permeated with divine enthusiasm, man may transcend for a brief moment
the limitations of his own personality and behold in part that celestial effulgence in which
all creation is bathed. But even in his periods of greatest illumination man is incapable of
imprinting upon the substance of his rational soul a perfect image of the multiform
expression of celestial activity.
Recognizing the futility of attempting to cope intellectually with that which transcends
the comprehension of the rational faculties, the early philosophers turned their attention
from the inconceivable Divinity to man himself, with in the narrow confines of whose
nature they found manifested all the mysteries of the external spheres. As the natural
outgrowth of this practice there was fabricated a secret theological system in which God
was considered as the Grand Man and, conversely, man as the little god. Continuing this
analogy, the universe was regarded as a man and, conversely, man as a miniature
universe. The greater universe was termed the Macrocosm--the Great World or Body--
and the Divine Life or spiritual entity controlling its functions was called the
Macroprosophus. Man's body, or the individual human universe, was termed the
Microcosm, and the Divine Life or spiritual entity controlling its functions was called the
Microprosophus. The pagan Mysteries were primarily concerned with instructing
neophytes in the true relationship existing between the Macrocosm and the Microcosm--
in other words, between God and man. Accordingly, the key to these analogies between
the organs and functions of the Microcosmic man and those of the Macrocosmic Man
constituted the most prized possession of the early initiates.
In Isis Unveiled, H. P. Blavatsky summarizes the pagan concept of man as follows: "Man
is a little world--a microcosm inside the great universe. Like a fetus, he is suspended, by
all his three spirits, in the matrix of the macrocosmos; and while his terrestrial body is in
constant sympathy with its parent earth, his astral soul lives in unison with the sidereal
anima mundi. He is in it, as it is in him, for the world-pervading element fills all space,
and is space itself, only shoreless and infinite. As to his third spirit, the divine, what is it
but an infinitesimal ray, one of the countless radiations proceeding directly from the
Highest Cause--the Spiritual Light of the World? This is the trinity of organic and
inorganic nature--the spiritual and the physical, which are three in one, and of which
Proclus says that 'The first monad is the Eternal God; the second, eternity; the third, the
paradigm, or pattern of the universe;' the three constituting the Intelligible Triad."
Long before the introduction of idolatry into religion, the early priests caused the statue
of a man to be placed in the sanctuary of the temple. This human figure symbolized the
Divine Power in all its intricate manifestations. Thus the priests of antiquity accepted
man as their textbook, and through the study of him learned to understand the greater and
more abstruse mysteries of the celestial scheme of which they were a part. It is not
improbable that this mysterious figure standing over the primitive altars was made in the
nature of a manikin and, like certain emblematic hands in the Mystery schools, was
covered with either carved or painted hieroglyphs. The statue may have opened, thus
showing the relative positions of the organs, bones, muscles, nerves, and other parts.
After ages of research, the manikin became a mass of intricate hieroglyphs and symbolic
figures. Every part had its secret meaning. The measurements formed a basic standard by
means of which it was possible to measure all parts of cosmos. It was a glorious
composite emblem of all the knowledge possessed by the sages and hierophants.
Then came the age of idolatry. The Mysteries decayed from within. The secrets were lost
and none knew the identity of the mysterious man who stood over the altar. It was
remembered only that the figure was a sacred and glorious symbol of the Universal
Power, and it: finally came to be looked upon as a god--the One in whose image man was
made. Having lost the knowledge of the purpose for which the manikin was originally
constructed, the priests worshiped this effigy until at last their lack of spiritual
understanding brought the temple down in ruins about their heads and the statue
crumbled with the civilization that had forgotten its meaning.
Proceeding from this assumption of the first theologians that man is actually fashioned in
the image of God, the initiated minds of past ages erected the stupendous structure of
theology upon the foundation of the human body. The religious world of today is almost
totally ignorant of the fact that the science of biology is the fountainhead of its doctrines
and tenets. Many of the codes and laws believed by modern divines to have been direct
revelations from Divinity are in reality the fruitage of ages of patient delving into the
intricacies of the human constitution and the infinite wonders revealed by such a study.
In nearly all the sacred books of the world can be traced an anatomical analogy. This is
most evident in their creation myths. Anyone familiar with embryology and obstetrics
will have no difficulty in recognizing the basis of the allegory concerning Adam and Eve
and the Garden of Eden, the nine degrees of the Eleusinian Mysteries, and the Brahmanic
legend of Vishnu's incarnations. The story of the Universal Egg, the Scandinavian myth
of Ginnungagap (the dark cleft in space in which the seed of the world is sown), and the
use of the fish as the emblem of the paternal generative power--all show the true origin of
theological speculation. The philosophers of antiquity realized that man himself was the
key to the riddle of life, for he was the living image of the Divine Plan, and in future ages
humanity also will come to realize more fully the solemn import of those ancient words:
"The proper study of mankind is man."
Both God and man have a twofold constitution, of which the superior part is invisible and
the inferior visible. In both there is also an intermediary sphere, marking the point where
these visible and invisible natures meet. As the spiritual nature of God controls His
objective universal form-which is actually a crystallized idea--so the spiritual nature of
man is the invisible cause and controlling power of his visible material personality. Thus
it is evident that the spirit of man bears the same relationship to his material body that
God bears to the objective universe. The Mysteries taught that spirit, or life, was anterior
to form and that what is anterior includes all that is posterior to itself. Spirit being
anterior to form, form is therefore included within the realm of spirit. It is also a popular
statement or belief that man's spirit is within his body. According to the conclusions of
philosophy and theology, however, this belief is erroneous, for spirit first circumscribes
an area and then manifests within it. Philosophically speaking, form, being a part of
spirit, is within spirit; but: spirit is more than the sum of form, As the material nature of
man is therefore within the sum of spirit, so the Universal Nature, including the entire
sidereal system, is within the all-pervading essence of God--the Universal Spirit.
According to another concept of the ancient wisdom, all bodies--whether spiritual or
material--have three centers, called by the Greeks the upper center, the middle center, and
the lower center. An apparent ambiguity will here be noted. To diagram or symbolize
adequately abstract mental verities is impossible, for the diagrammatic representation of
one aspect of metaphysical relationships may be an actual contradiction of some other
aspect. While that which
is above is generally considered superior in dignity and power, in reality that which is in
the center is superior and anterior to both that which is said to be above and that which is
said to be below. Therefore, it must be said that the first--which is considered as being
above--is actually in the center, while both of the others (which are said to be either
above or below) are actually beneath. This point can be further simplified if the reader
will consider above as indicating degree of proximity to source and below as indicating
degree of distance from source, source being posited in the actual center and relative
distance being the various points along the radii from the center toward the
circumference. In matters pertaining to philosophy and theology, up may be considered
as toward the center and down as toward the circumference. Center is spirit;
circumference is matter. Therefore, up is toward spirit along an ascending scale of
spirituality; down is toward matter along an ascending scale of materiality. The latter
concept is partly expressed by the apex of a cone which, when viewed from above, is
seen as a point in the exact center of the circumference formed by the base of the cone.
These three universal centers--the one above, the one below, and the link uniting themrepresent
three suns or three aspects of one sun--centers of effulgence. These also have
their analogues in the three grand centers of the human body, which, like the physical
universe, is a Demiurgic fabrication. "The first of these [suns]," says Thomas Taylor, "is
analogous to light when viewed subsisting in its fountain the sun; the second to the light
immediately proceeding from the sun; and the third to the splendour communicated to
other natures by this light."
Since the superior (or spiritual) center is in the midst of the other two, its analogue in the
physical body is the heart--the most spiritual and mysterious organ in the human body.
The second center (or the link between the superior and inferior worlds) is elevated to the
position of greatest physical dignity--the brain. The third (or lower) center is relegated to
the position of least physical dignity but greatest physical importance--the generative
system. Thus the heart is symbolically the source of life; the brain the link by which,
through rational intelligence, life and form are united; and the generative system--or
infernal creator--the source of that power by which physical organisms are produced. The
ideals and aspirations of the individual depend largely upon which of these three centers
of power predominates in scope and activity of expression. In the materialist the lower
center is the strongest, in the intellectualist the higher center; but in the initiate the middle
center--by bathing the two extremes in a flood of spiritual effulgence--controls
wholesomely both the mind and the body.
As light bears witness of life-which is its source-so the mind bears witness of the spirit,
and activity in a still lower plane bears witness of intelligence. Thus the mind bears
witness of the heart, while the generative system, in turn, bears witness of the mind.
Accordingly, the spiritual nature is most commonly symbolized by a heart; the
intellectual power by an opened eye, symbolizing the pineal gland or Cyclopean eye,
which is the two-faced Janus of the pagan Mysteries; and the generative system by a
flower, a staff, a cup, or a hand.
While all the Mysteries recognized the heart as the center of spiritual consciousness, they
often purposely ignored this concept and used the heart in its exoteric sense as the symbol
of the emotional nature, In this arrangement the generative center represented the
physical body, the heart the emotional body, and the brain the mental body. The brain
represented the superior sphere, but after the initiates had passed through the lower
degrees they were instructed that the brain was the proxy of the spiritual flame dwelling
in the innermost recesses of the heart. The student of esotericism discovers ere long that
the ancients often resorted to various blinds to conceal the true interpretations of their
Mysteries. The substitution of the brain for the heart was one of these blinds.
The three degrees of the ancient Mysteries were, with few exceptions, given in chambers
which represented the three great centers of the human and Universal bodies. If possible,
the temple itself was constructed in the form of the human body. The candidate entered
between the feet and received the highest degree in the point corresponding to the brain.
Thus the first degree was the material mystery and its symbol was the generative system;
it raised the candidate through the various degrees of concrete thought. The second
degree was given in the chamber corresponding to the heart, but represented the middle
power which was the mental link. Here the candidate was initiated into the mysteries of
abstract thought and lifted as high as the mind was capable of penetrating. He then passed
into the third chamber, which, analogous to the brain, occupied the highest position in the
temple but, analogous to the heart, was of the greatest dignity. In the brain chamber the
heart mystery was given. Here the initiate for the first time truly comprehended the
meaning of those immortal words: "As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he." As there are
seven hearts in the brain so there are seven brains in the heart, but this is a matter of
superphysics of which little can be said at the present time.
Proclus writes on this subject in the first book of On the Theology of Plato: "Indeed,
Socrates in the (First) Alcibiades rightly observes, that the soul entering into herself will
behold all other things, and deity itself. For verging to her own union, and to the centre of
all life, laying aside multitude, and the variety of the all manifold powers which she
contains, she ascends to the highest watch-tower offerings. And as in the most holy of the
mysteries, they say, that the mystics at first meet with the multi form, and many-shaped
genera, which are hurled forth before the gods, but on entering the temple, unmoved, and
guarded by the mystic rites, they genuinely receive in their bosom [heart] divine
illumination, and divested of their garments, as they would say, participate of a divine
nature; the same mode, as it appears to me, takes place in the speculation of wholes. For
the soul when looking at things posterior to herself, beholds the shadows and images of
beings, but when she converts herself to herself she evolves her own essence, and the
reasons which she contains. And at first indeed, she only as it were beholds herself; but,
when she penetrates more profoundly into the knowledge of herself, she finds in herself
both intellect, and the orders of beings. When however, she proceeds into her interior
recesses, and into the adytum as it were of the soul, she perceives with her eye closed
[without the aid of the lower mind], the genus of the gods, and the unities of beings. For
all things are in us psychically, and through this we are naturally capable of knowing all
things, by exciting the powers and the images of wholes which we contain."
The initiates of old warned their disciples that an image is not a reality but merely the
objectification of a subjective idea. The image, of the gods were nor designed to be
objects of worship but were to be regarded merely as emblems or reminders of invisible
powers and principles. Similarly, the body of man must not be considered as the
individual but only as the house of the individual, in the same manner that the temple was
the House of God. In a state of grossness and perversion man's body is the tomb or prison
of a divine principle; in a state of unfoldment and regeneration it is the House or Sanctuary of the
Deity by whose creative powers it was fashioned. "Personality is suspended upon a
thread from the nature of Being," declares the secret work. Man is essentially a
permanent and immortal principle; only his bodies pass through the cycle of birth and
death. The immortal is the reality; the mortal is the unreality. During each period of earth
life, reality thus dwells in unreality, to be liberated from it temporarily by death and
permanently by illumination.
While generally regarded as polytheists, the pagans gained this reputation not because
they worshiped more than one God but rather because they personified the attributes of
this God, thereby creating a pantheon of posterior deities each manifesting a part of what
the One God manifested as a whole. The various pantheons of ancient religions therefore
actually represent the catalogued and personified attributes of Deity. In this respect they
correspond to the hierarchies of the Hebrew Qabbalists. All the gods and goddesses of
antiquity consequently have their analogies in the human body, as have also the elements,
planets, and constellations which were assigned as proper vehicles for these celestials.
Four body centers are assigned to the elements, the seven vital organs to the planets, the
twelve principal parts and members to the zodiac, the invisible parts of man's divine
nature to various supermundane deities, while the hidden God was declared to manifest
through the marrow in the bones.
It is difficult for many to realize that they are actual universes; that their physical bodies
are a visible nature through the structure of which countless waves of evolving life are
unfolding their latent potentialities. Yet through man's physical body not only are a
mineral, a plant, and an animal kingdom evolving, but also unknown classifications and
divisions of invisible spiritual life. just as cells are infinitesimal units in the structure of
man, so man is an infinitesimal unit in the structure of the universe. A theology based
upon the knowledge and appreciation of these relationships is as profoundly just as it is
As man's physical body has five distinct and important extremities--two legs, two arms,
and a head, of which the last governs the first four--the number 5 has been accepted as
the symbol of man. By its four corners the pyramid symbolizes the arms and legs, and by
its apex the head, thus indicating that one rational power controls four irrational corners.
The hands and feet are used to represent the four elements, of which the two feet are earth
and water, and the two hands fire and air. The brain then symbolizes the sacred fifth
element--æther--which controls and unites the other four. If the feet are placed together
and the arms outspread, man then symbolizes the cross with the rational intellect as the
head or upper limb.
The fingers and toes also have special significance. The toes represent the Ten
Commandments of the physical law and the fingers the Ten Commandments of the
spiritual law. The four fingers of each hand represent the four elements and the three
phalanges of each finger represent the divisions of the element, so that in each hand there
are twelve parts to the fingers, which are analogous to the signs of the zodiac, whereas
the two phalanges and base of each thumb signify the threefold Deity. The first phalange
corresponds to the creative aspect, the second to the preservative aspect, and the base to
the generative and destructive aspect. When the hands are brought together, the result is
the twenty-four Elders and the six Days of Creation.
In symbolism the body is divided vertically into halves, the right half being considered as
light and the left half as darkness. By those unacquainted with the true meanings of light
and darkness the light half was denominated spiritual and the left half material. Light is
the symbol of objectivity; darkness of subjectivity. Light is a manifestation of life and is
therefore posterior to life. That which is anterior to light is darkness, in which light exists
temporarily but darkness permanently. As life precedes light, its only symbol is darkness,
and darkness is considered as the veil which must eternally conceal the true nature of
abstract and undifferentiated Being.
In ancient times men fought with their right arms and defended the vital centers with their
left arms, on which was carried the protecting shield. The right half of the body was
regarded therefore as offensive and the left half defensive. For this reason also the right
side of the body was considered masculine and the left side feminine. Several authorities
are of the opinion that the present prevalent right-handedness of the race is the outgrowth
of the custom of holding the left hand in restraint for defensive purposes. Furthermore, as
the source of Being is in the primal darkness which preceded light, so the spiritual nature
of man is in the dark part of his being, for the heart is on the left side.
Among the curious misconceptions arising from the false practice of associating darkness
with evil is one by which several early nations used the right hand for all constructive
labors and the left hand for only those purposes termed unclean and unfit for the sight of
the gods. For the same reason black magic was often referred to as the left-hand path, and
heaven was said to be upon the right and hell upon the left. Some philosophers further
declared that there were two methods of writing: one from left to right, which was
considered the exoteric method; the other from right to left, which was considered
esoteric. The exoteric writing was that which was done out or away from the heart, while
the esoteric writing was that which--like the ancient Hebrew--was written toward the
The secret doctrine declares that every part and member of the body is epitomized in the
brain and, in turn, that all that is in the brain is epitomized in the heart. In symbolism the
human head is frequently used to represent intelligence and self-knowledge. As the
human body in its entirety is the most perfect known product of the earth's evolution, it
was employed to represent Divinity--the highest appreciable state or condition. Artists,
attempting to portray Divinity, often show only a hand emerging from an impenetrable
cloud. The cloud signifies the Unknowable Divinity concealed from man by human
limitation. The hand signifies the Divine activity, the only part of God which is
cognizable to the lower senses.
The face consists of a natural trinity: the eyes representing the spiritual power which
comprehends; the nostrils representing the preservative and vivifying power; and the
mouth and ears representing the material Demiurgic power of the lower world. The first
sphere is eternally existent and is creative; the second sphere pertains to the mystery of
the creative breach; and the third sphere to the creative word. By the Word of God the material universe was fabricated, and the
seven creative powers, or vowel sounds--which had been brought into existence by the
speaking of the Word--became the seven Elohim or Deities by whose power and
ministration the lower world was organized. Occasionally the Deity is symbolized by an
eye, an ear, a nose, or a mouth. By the first, Divine awareness is signified; by the second,
Divine interest; by the third, Divine vitality; and by the fourth, Divine command.
The ancients did not believe that spirituality made men either righteous or rational, but
rather that righteousness and rationality made men spiritual. The Mysteries taught that
spiritual illumination was attained only by bringing the lower nature up to a certain
standard of efficiency and purity. The Mysteries were therefore established for the
purpose of unfolding the nature of man according to certain fixed rules which, when
faithfully followed, elevated the human consciousness to a point where it was capable of
cognizing its own constitution and the true purpose of existence. This knowledge of how
man's manifold constitution could be most quickly and most completely regenerated to
the point of spiritual illumination constituted the secret, or esoteric, doctrine of antiquity.
Certain apparently physical organs and centers are in reality the veils or sheaths of
spiritual centers. What these were and how they could be unfolded was never revealed to
the unregenerate, for the philosophers realized that once he understands the complete
working of any system, a man may accomplish a prescribed end without being qualified
to manipulate and control the effects which he has produced. For this reason long periods
of probation were imposed, so that the knowledge of how to become as the gods might
remain the sole possession of the worthy.
Lest that knowledge be lost, however, it was concealed in allegories and myths which
were meaningless to the profane but self-evident to those acquainted with that theory of
personal redemption which was the foundation of philosophical theology. Christianity
itself may be cited as an example. The entire New Testament is in fact an ingeniously
concealed exposition of the secret processes of human regeneration. The characters so
long considered as historical men and women are really the personification of certain
processes which take place in the human body when man begins the task of consciously
liberating himself from the bondage of ignorance and death.
The garments and ornamentations supposedly worn by the gods are also keys, for in the
Mysteries clothing was considered as synonymous with form. The degree of spirituality
or materiality of the organisms was signified by the quality, beauty, and value of the
garments worn. Man's physical body was looked upon as the robe of his spiritual nature;
consequently, the more developed were his super-substantial powers the more glorious
his apparel. Of course, clothing was originally worn for ornamentation rather than
protection, and such practice still prevails among many primitive peoples. The Mysteries
caught that man's only lasting adornments were his virtues and worthy characteristics;
that he was clothed in his own accomplishments and adorned by his attainments. Thus the
white robe was symbolic of purity, the red robe of sacrifice and love, and the blue robe of
altruism and integrity. Since the body was said to be the robe of the spirit, mental or
moral deformities were depicted as deformities of the body.
Considering man's body as the measuring rule of the universe, the philosophers declared
that all things resemble in constitution--if not in form--the human body. The Greeks, for
example, declared Delphi to be the navel of the earth, for the physical planet was looked
upon as a gigantic human being twisted into the form of a ball. In contradistinction to the
belief of Christendom that the earth is an inanimate thing, the pagans considered not only
the earth but also all the sidereal bodies as individual creatures possessing individual
intelligences. They even went so far as to view the various kingdoms of Nature as
individual entities. The animal kingdom, for example, was looked upon as one being--a
composite of all the creatures composing that kingdom. This prototypic beast was a
mosaic embodiment of all animal propensities and within its nature the entire animal
world existed as the human species exists within the constitution of the prototypic Adam.
In the same manner, races, nations, tribes, religions, states, communities, and cities were
viewed as composite entities, each made up of varying numbers of individual units.
Every community has an individuality which is the sum of the individual attitudes of its
inhabitants. Every religion is an individual whose body is made up of a hierarchy and
vast host of individual worshipers. The organization of any religion represents its
physical body, and its individual members the cell life making up this organism.
Accordingly, religions, races, and communities--like individuals--pass through
Shakespeare's Seven Ages, for the life of man is a standard by which the perpetuity of all
things is estimated.
According to the secret doctrine, man, through the gradual refinement of his vehicles and
the ever-increasing sensitiveness resulting from that refinement, is gradually overcoming
the limitations of matter and is disentangling himself from his mortal coil. When
humanity has completed its physical evolution, the empty shell of materiality left behind
will be used by other life waves as steppingstones to their own liberation. The trend of
man's evolutionary growth is ever toward his own essential Selfhood. At the point of
deepest materialism, therefore, man is at the greatest distance from Himself. According to
the Mystery teachings, not all the spiritual nature of man incarnates in matter. The spirit
of man is diagrammatically shown as an equilateral triangle with one point downward.
This lower point, which is one-third of the spiritual nature but in comparison to the
dignity of the other two is much less than a third, descends into the illusion of material
existence for a brief space of time. That which never clothes itself in the sheath of matter
is the Hermetic Anthropos--the Overman-- analogous to the Cyclops or guardian dæmon
of the Greeks, the angel of Jakob Böhme, and the Oversoul of Emerson, "that Unity, that
Oversoul, within which every man's particular being is contained and made one with all
At birth only a third part of the Divine Nature of man temporarily dissociates itself from
its own immortality and takes upon itself the dream of physical birth and existence,
animating with its own celestial enthusiasm a vehicle composed of material elements,
part of and bound to the material sphere. At death this incarnated part awakens from the
dream of physical existence and reunites itself once more with its eternal condition. This
periodical descent of spirit into matter is termed the wheel of life and death, and the
principles involved are treated at length by the philosophers under the subject of
metempsychosis. By initiation into the Mysteries and a certain process known as
operative theology, this law of birth and death is transcended, and during the course of
physical existence that part of the spirit which is asleep in form is awakened without the
intervention of death--the inevitable Initiator--and is consciously reunited with the
Anthropos, or the overshadowing substance of itself. This is at once the primary purpose
and the consummate achievement of the Mysteries: that man shall become aware of and
consciously be reunited with the divine source of himself without tasting of physical
The Hiramic Legend
WHEN Solomon--the beloved of God, builder of the Everlasting House, and Grand
Master of the Lodge of Jerusalem--ascended the throne of his father David he
consecrated his life to the erection of a temple to God and a palace for the kings of Israel.
David's faithful friend, Hiram, King of Tyre, hearing that a son of David sat upon the
throne of Israel, sent messages of congratulation and offers of assistance to the new ruler.
In his History of the Jews, Josephus mentions that copies of the letters passing between
the two kings were then to be seen both at Jerusalem and at Tyre. Despite Hiram's lack of
appreciation for the twenty cities of Galilee which Solomon presented to him upon the
completion of the temple, the two monarchs remained the best of friends. Both were
famous for their wit and wisdom, and when they exchanged letters each devised puzzling
questions to test the mental ingenuity of the other. Solomon made an agreement with
Hiram of Tyre promising vast amounts of barley, wheat, corn, wine, and oil as wages for
the masons and carpenters from Tyre who were to assist the Jews in the erection of the
temple. Hiram also supplied cedars and other fine trees, which were made into rafts and
floated down the sea to Joppa, whence they were taken inland by Solomon's workmen to
the temple site.
Because of his great love for Solomon, Hiram of Tyre sent also the Grand Master of the
Dionysiac Architects, CHiram Abiff, a Widow's Son, who had no equal among the
craftsmen of the earth. CHiram is described as being "a Tyrian by birch, but of Israelitish
descent," and "a second Bezaleel, honored by his king with the title of Father." The
Freemason's Pocket Companion (published in 1771) describes CHiram as "the most
cunning, skilful and curious workman that ever lived, whose abilities were not confined
to building alone, but extended to all kinds of work, whether in gold, silver, brass or iron;
whether in linen, tapestry, or embroidery; whether considered as an architect, statuary
[sic]; founder or designer, separately or together, he equally excelled. From his designs,
and under his direction, all the rich and splendid furniture of the Temple and its several
appendages were begun, carried on, and finished. Solomon appointed him, in his absence,
to fill the chair, as Deputy Grand-Master; and in his presence, Senior Grand-Warden,
Master of work, and general overseer of all artists, as well those whom David had
formerly procured from Tyre and Sidon, as those Hiram should now send." (Modem
Masonic writers differ as to the accuracy of the last sentence.)
Although an immense amount of labor was involved in its construction, Solomon's
Temple--in the words of George Oliver--"was only a small building and very inferior in
point of size to some of our churches." The number of buildings contiguous to it and the
vast treasure of gold and precious stones used in its construction concentrated a great
amount of wealth within the temple area. In the midst of the temple stood the Holy of
Holies, sometimes called the Oracle. It was an exact cube, each dimension being twenty
cubits, and exemplified the influence of Egyptian symbolism. The buildings of the temple
group were ornamented with 1,453 columns of Parian marble, magnificently sculptured,
and 2,906 pilasters decorated with capitals. There was a broad porch facing the east, and
the sanctum sanctorum was upon the west. According to tradition, the various buildings
and courtyards could hold in all 300,000 persons. Both the Sanctuary and the Holy of
Holies were entirely lined with solid gold plates encrusted with jewels.
King Solomon began the building of the temple in the fourth year of his reign on what
would be, according to modern calculation, the 21st day of April, and finished it in the
eleventh year of his reign on the 23rd day of October. The temple was begun in the 480th
year after the children of Israel had passed the Red Sea. Part of the labor of construction
included the building of an artificial foundation on the brow of Mount Moriah. The
stones for the temple were hoisted from quarries directly beneath Mount Moriah and
were trued before being brought to the surface. The brass and golden ornaments for the
temple were cast in molds in the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredatha, and the
wooden parts were all finished before they reached the temple site. The building was put
together, consequently, without sound and without instruments, all its parts fitting exactly
"without the hammer of contention, the axe of division, or any tool of mischief."
Anderson's much-discussed Constitutions of the Free-Masons, published in London in
1723, and reprinted by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1734, thus describes the
division of the laborers engaged in the building of the Everlasting House:
"But Dagon's Temple, and the finest structures of Tyre and Sidon, could not be compared
with the Eternal God's Temple at Jerusalem, * * * there were employed about it no less
than 3,600 Princes, or Master-Masons, to conduct the work according to Solomon's
directions, with 80,000 hewers of stone in the mountain, or Fellow Craftsmen, and 70,000
labourers, in all 153,600 besides the levy under Adoniram to work in the mountains of
Lebanon by turns with the Sidonians, viz., 30,000, being in all 183,600." Daniel Sickels
gives 3,300 overseers, instead of 3,600, and lists the three Grand Masters separately. The
same author estimates the cost of the temple at nearly four thousand millions of dollars.
The Masonic legend of the building of Solomon's Temple does not in every particular
parallel the Scriptural version, especially in those portions relating to CHiram Abiff.
According to the Biblical account, this Master workman returned to his own country; in
the Masonic allegory he is foully murdered. On this point A. E. Waite, in his New
Encyclopædia of Freemasonry, makes the following explanatory comment:
"The legend of the Master-Builder is the great allegory of Masonry. It happens that his
figurative story is grounded on the fact of a personality mentioned in Holy Scripture, but
this historical background is of the accidents and not the essence; the significance is in
the allegory and not in any point of history which may lie behind it."
CHiram, as Master of the Builders, divided his workmen into three groups, which were
termed Entered Apprentices, Fellow-Craftsmen, and Master Masons. To each division he
passwords and signs by which their respective excellence could be quickly determined.
While all were classified according to their merits some were dissatisfied, for they
desired a more exalted position than they were capable of filling. At last three Fellow-
Craftsmen, more daring than their companions, determined to force CHiram to reveal to
them the password of the Master's degree. Knowing that CHiram always went into the
unfinished sanctum sanctorum at high noon to pray, these ruffians--whose names were
Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum--lay in wait for him, one at each of the main gates of the
temple. CHiram, about to leave the temple by the south gate, was suddenly confronted by
Jubela armed with a twenty-four-inch gauge. Upon CHiram's refusal to reveal the
Master's Word, the ruffian struck him on the throat with the rule, and the wounded Master
then hastened to the west gate, where Jubelo, armed with a square, awaited him and made
a similar demand. Again CHiram was silent, and the second assassin struck him on the
breast with the square. CHiram thereupon staggered to the east gate, only to be met there
by Jubelum armed with a maul. When CHiram, refused him the Master's Word, Jubelum
struck the Master between the eyes with the mallet and CHiram fell dead.
The body of CHiram was buried by the murderers over the brow of Mount Moriah and a
sprig of acacia placed upon the grave. The murderers then sought to escape punishment
for their crime by embarking for Ethiopia, but the port was closed. All three were finally
captured, and after admitting their guilt were duly executed. Parties of three were then
sent out by King Solomon, and one of these groups discovered the newly made grave
marked by the evergreen sprig. After the Entered Apprentices and the Fellow-Craftsmen
had failed to resurrect their Master from the dead he was finally raised by the Master
Mason with the "strong grip of a Lion's Paw."
To the initiated Builder the name CHiram Abiff signifies "My Father, the Universal
Spirit, one in essence, three in aspect." Thus the murdered Master is a type of the Cosmic
Martyr--the crucified Spirit of Good, the dying god--whose Mystery is celebrated
throughout the world. Among the manuscripts of Dr. Sigismund Bastrom, the initiated
Rosicrucian, appears the following extract from von Welling concerning the true
philosophic nature of the Masonic CHiram:
"The original word m, CHiram, is a radical word consisting of three consonants and
i. e. Cheth, Resh and Mem. (1) , Cheth, signifies Chamah, the Sun's light, i. e. the
Universal, invisible, cold fire of Nature attracted by the Sun, manifested into light and
sent down to us and to every planetary body belonging to the solar system. (2) , Resh,
signifies m Ruach, i. e. Spirit, air, wind, as being the Vehicle which conveys and
collects the light into numberless Foci, wherein the solar rays of light are agitated by a
circular motion and manifested in Heat and burning Fire. (3) , or Mem, signifies
majim, water, humidity, but rather the mother of water, i. e. Radical Humidity or a
particular kind of condensed air. These three constitute the Universal Agent or fire of
Nature in one word, m, CHiram, not Hiram."
Albert Pike mentions several forms of the name CHiram: Khirm, Khurm, and Khur-Om,
the latter ending in the sacred Hindu monosyllable OM, which may also be extracted
from the names of the three murderers. Pike further relates the three ruffians to a triad of
stars in the constellation of Libra and also calls attention to the fact that the Chaldean god
Bal--metamorphosed into a demon by the Jews--appears in the name of each of the
murderers, Jubela, Jubelo, and Jubelum. To interpret the Hiramic legend requires
familiarity with both the Pythagorean and Qabbalistic systems of numbers and letters,
and also the philosophic and astronomic cycles of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, and
Brahmins. For example, consider the number 33. The first temple of Solomon stood for
thirty-three years in its pristine splendor. At the end of that time it was pillaged by the
Egyptian King Shishak, and finally (588 B.C.) it was completely destroyed by
Nebuchadnezzar and the people of Jerusalem were led into captivity to Babylon. (See
General History of Freemasonry, by Robert Macoy.) Also King David ruled for thirtythree
years in Jerusalem; the Masonic Order is divided into thirty-three symbolic degrees;
there are thirty-three segments in the human spinal column; and Jesus was crucified in the
thirty-third year of His life.
The efforts made to discover the origin of the Hiramic legend show that, while the legend
in its present form is comparatively modem, its underlying principles run back to
remotest antiquity. It is generally admitted by modem Masonic scholars that the story of
the martyred CHiram is based upon the Egyptian rites of Osiris, whose death and
resurrection figuratively portrayed the spiritual death of man and his regeneration through
initiation into the Mysteries. CHiram is also identified with Hermes through the
inscription on the Emerald Table. From these associations it is evident that CHiram is to
be considered as a prototype of humanity; in fact he is Plato's Idea (archetype) of man.
As Adam after the Fall symbolizes the Idea of human degeneration, so CHiram through
his resurrection symbolizes the Idea of human regeneration.
On the 19th day of March, 1314, Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Knights
Templars, was burned on a pyre erected upon that point of the islet of the Seine, at Paris,
where afterwards was erected the statue of King Henry IV. (See The Indian Religions, by
Hargrave Jennings.) "It is mentioned as a tradition in some of the accounts of the
burning," writes Jennings, "that Molay, ere he expired, summoned Clement, the Pope
who had pronounced the bull of abolition against the Order and had condemned the
Grand Master to the flames, to appear, within forty days, before the Supreme Eternal
judge, and Philip [the king] to the same awful tribunal within the space of a year. Both
predictions were fulfilled." The close relationship between Freemasonry and the original
Knights Templars has caused the story of CHiram to be linked with the martyrdom of
Jacques de Molay. According to this interpretation, the three ruffians who cruelly slew
their Master at the gates of the temple because he refused to reveal the secrets of his
Order represent the Pope, the king, and the executioners. De Molay died maintaining his
innocence and refusing to disclose the philosophical and magical arcana of the Templars.
Those who have sought to identify CHiram with the murdered King Charles the First
conceive the Hiramic legend to have been invented for that purpose by Elias Ashmole, a
mystical philosopher, who was probably a member of the Rosicrucian Fraternity. Charles
was dethroned in 1647 and died on the block in 1649, leaving the Royalist party
leaderless. An attempt has been made to relate the term "the Sons of the Widow" (an
appellation frequently applied to members of the Masonic Order) to this incident in
English history, for by the murder of her king England became a Widow and all
Englishmen Widow's Sons.
To the mystic Christian Mason, CHiram. represents the Christ who in three days
(degrees) raised the temple of His body from its earthly sepulcher. His three murderers
were Cæsar's agent (the state), the Sanhedrin (the church), and the incited populace (the
mob). Thus considered, CHiram becomes the higher nature of man and the murderers are
ignorance, superstition, and fear. The indwelling Christ can give expression to Himself in
this world only through man's thoughts, feelings, and actions. Right thinking, right
feeling, and right action--these are three gates through which the Christ power passes into
the material world, there to labor in the erection of the Temple of Universal Brotherhood.
Ignorance, superstition, and fear are three ruffians through whose agencies the Spirit of
Good is murdered and a false kingdom, controlled by wrong thinking, wrong feeling, and
wrong action, established in its stead. In the material universe evil appears ever
"In this sense," writes Daniel Sickels, "the myth of the Tyrian is perpetually repeated in
the history of human affairs. Orpheus was murdered, and his body thrown into the
Hebrus; Socrates was made to drink the hemlock; and, in all ages, we have seen Evil
temporarily triumphant, and Virtue and Truth calumniated, persecuted, crucified, and
slain. But Eternal justice marches surely and swiftly through the world: the Typhons, the
children of darkness, the plotters of crime, all the infinitely varied forms of evil, are
swept into oblivion; and Truth and Virtue--for a time laid low--come forth, clothed with
diviner majesty, and crowned with everlasting glory!" (See General Ahiman Rezon.)
If, as there is ample reason to suspect, the modern Freemasonic Order was profoundly
influenced by, if it is not an actual outgrowth of, Francis Bacon's secret society, its
symbolism is undoubtedly permeated with Bacon's two great ideals: universal education
and universal democracy. The deadly enemies of universal education are ignorance,
superstition, and fear, by which the human soul is held in bondage to the lowest part of its
own constitution. The arrant enemies of universal democracy have ever been the crown,
the tiara, and the torch. Thus CHiram symbolizes that ideal state of spiritual, intellectual,
and physical emancipation which has ever been sacrificed upon the altar of human
selfishness. CHiram is the Beautifier of the Eternal House. Modern utilitarianism,
however, sacrifices the beautiful for the practical, in the same breath declaring the
obvious lie that selfishness, hatred, and discord are practical.
thirty-two degrees of Freemasonic ritualism hidden in the text of the First Shakespeare
Folio. Masonic emblems are to be observed also upon the title pages of nearly every book
published by Bacon. Sir Francis Bacon considered himself as a living sacrifice upon the
altar of human need; he was obviously cut down in the midst of his labors, and no student
of his New Atlantis can fail to recognize the Masonic symbolism contained therein.
According to the observations of Joseph Fort Newton, the Temple of Solomon described
by Bacon in that utopian romance was not a house at all but the name of an ideal state. Is
it not true that the Temple of Freemasonry is also emblematic of a condition of society?
While, as before stated, the principles of the Hiramic legend are of the greatest antiquity,
it is not impossible that its present form may be based upon incidents in the life of Lord
Bacon, who passed through the philosophic death and was raised in Germany.
In an old manuscript appears the statement that the Freemasonic Order was formed by
alchemists and Hermetic philosophers who had banded themselves together to protect
their secrets against the infamous methods used by avaricious persons to wring from
them the secret of gold-making. The fact that the Hiramic legend contains an alchemical
formula gives credence to this story. Thus the building of Solomon's Temple represents
the consummation of the magnum opus, which cannot be realized without the assistance
of CHiram, the Universal Agent. The Masonic Mysteries teach the initiate how to prepare
within his own soul a miraculous powder of projection by which it is possible for him to
transmute the base lump of human ignorance, perversion, and discord into an ingot of
spiritual and philosophic gold.
Sufficient similarity exists between the Masonic CHiram and the Kundalini of Hindu
mysticism to warrant the assumption that CHiram may be considered a symbol also of the
Spirit Fire moving through the sixth ventricle of the spinal column. The exact science of
human regeneration is the Lost Key of Masonry, for when the Spirit Fire is lifted up
through the thirty-three degrees, or segments of the spinal column, and enters into the
domed chamber of the human skull, it finally passes into the pituitary body (Isis), where
it invokes Ra (the pineal gland) and demands the Sacred Name. Operative Masonry, in
the fullest meaning of that term, signifies the process by which the Eye of Horus is
opened. E. A. Wallis Budge has noted that in some of the papyri illustrating the entrance
of the souls of the dead into the judgment hall of Osiris the deceased person has a pine
cone attached to the crown of his head. The Greek mystics also carried a symbolic staff,
the upper end being in the form of a pine cone, which was called the thyrsus of Bacchus.
In the human brain there is a tiny gland called the pineal body, which is the sacred eye of
the ancients, and corresponds to the third eye of the Cyclops. Little is known concerning
the function of the pineal body, which Descartes suggested (more wisely than he knew)
might be the abode of the spirit of man. As its name signifies, the pineal gland is the
sacred pine cone in man--the eye single, which cannot be opened until CHiram (the Spirit
Fire) is raised through the sacred seals which are called the Seven Churches in Asia.
There is an Oriental painting which shows three sun bursts. One sunburst covers the head,
in the midst of which sits Brahma with four heads, his body a mysterious dark color. The
second sunburst--which covers the heart, solar plexus, and upper abdominal region--
shows Vishnu sitting in the blossom of the lotus on a couch formed of the coils of the
serpent of cosmic motion, its seven-hooded head forming a canopy over the god. The
third sunburst is over the generative system, in the midst of which sits Shiva, his body a
grayish white and the Ganges River flowing out of the crown of his head. This painting
was the work of a Hindu mystic who spent many years subtly concealing great
philosophical principles within these figures. The Christian legends could be related also
to the human body by the same method as the Oriental, for the arcane meanings hidden in
the teachings of both schools are identical.
As applied to Masonry, the three sunbursts represent the gates of the temple at which
CHiram was struck, there being no gate in the north because the sun never shines from
the northern angle of the heavens. The north is the symbol of the physical because of its
relation to ice (crystallized water) and to the body (crystallized spirit). In man the light
shines toward the north but never from it, because the body has no light of its own but
shines with the reflected glory of the divine life-particles concealed within physical
substance. For this reason the moon is accepted as the symbol of man's physical nature.
CHiram is the mysterious fiery, airy water which must be raised through the three grand
centers symbolized by the ladder with three rungs and the sunburst flowers mentioned in
the description of the Hindu painting. It must also pass upward by means of the ladder of
seven rungs-the seven plexuses proximate to the spine. The nine segments of the sacrum
and coccyx are pierced by ten foramina, through which pass the roots of the Tree of Life.
Nine is the sacred number of man, and in the symbolism of the sacrum and coccyx a great
mystery is concealed. That part of the body from the kidneys downward was termed by
the early Qabbalists the Land of Egypt into which the children of Israel were taken during
the captivity. Out of Egypt, Moses (the illuminated mind, as his name implies) led the
tribes of Israel (the twelve faculties) by raising the brazen serpent in the wilderness upon
the symbol of the Tau cross. Not only CHiram but the god-men of nearly every pagan
Mystery ritual are personifications of the Spirit Fire in the human spinal cord.
The astronomical aspect of the Hiramic legend must not be overlooked. The tragedy of
CHiram is enacted annually by the sun during its passage through the signs of the zodiac.
"From the journey of the Sun through the twelve signs," writes Albert Pike, "come the
legend of the twelve labors of Hercules, and the incarnations of Vishnu and Buddha.
Hence came the legend of the murder of Khurum, representative of the Sun, by the three
Fellow-Crafts, symbols of the Winter signs, Capricornus, Aquarius, and Pisces, who
assailed him at the three gates of Heaven and slew him at the Winter Solstice. Hence the
search for him by the nine Fellow-Crafts, the other nine signs, his finding, burial, and
resurrection." (See Morals and Dogma.)
Other authors consider Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius as the three murderers of the sun,
inasmuch as Osiris was murdered by Typhon, to whom were assigned the thirty degrees
of the constellation of Scorpio. In the Christian Mysteries also Judas signifies the
Scorpion, and the thirty pieces of silver for which he betrayed His Lord represent the
number of degrees in that sign. Having been struck by Libra (the state), Scorpio (the
church), and Sagittarius (the mob), the sun (CHiram) is secretly home through the
darkness by the signs of Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces and buried over the brow of a
hill (the vernal equinox). Capricorn has for its symbol an old man with a scythe in his
hand. This is Father Time--a wayfarer--who is symbolized in Masonry as straightening
out the ringlets of a young girl's hair. If the Weeping Virgin be considered a symbol of
Virgo, and Father Time with his scythe a symbol of Capricorn, then the interval of ninety
degrees between these two signs will be found to correspond to that occupied by the three
murderers. Esoterically, the urn containing the ashes of CHiram represents the human
heart. Saturn, the old man who lives at the north pole, and brings with him to the children
of men a sprig of evergreen (the Christmas tree), is familiar to the little folks under the
name of Santa Claus, for he brings each winter the gift of a new year.
The martyred sun is discovered by Aries, a Fellow-Craftsman, and at the vernal equinox
the process of raising him begins. This is finally accomplished by the Lion of Judah, who
in ancient times occupied the position of the keystone of the Royal Arch of Heaven. The
precession of the equinoxes causes various signs to play the rôle of the murderers of the
sun during the different ages of the world, but the principle involved remains unchanged.
Such is the cosmic story of CHiram, the Universal Benefactor, the Fiery Architect: of the
Divine House, who carries with him to the grave that Lost Word which, when spoken,
raises all life to power and glory. According to Christian mysticism, when the Lost Word
is found it is discovered in a stable, surrounded by beasts and marked by a star. "After the
sun leaves Leo," writes Robert Hewitt Brown, "the days begin to grow unequivocally
shorter as the sun declines toward the autumnal equinox, to be again slain by the three
autumnal months, lie dead through the three winter ones, and be raised again by the three
vernal ones. Each year the great tragedy is repeated, and the glorious resurrection takes
place." (See Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy.)
CHiram is termed dead because in the average individual the cosmic creative forces are
limited in their manifestation to purely physical--and correspondingly materialistic--
expression. Obsessed by his belief in the reality and permanence of physical existence,
man does not correlate the material universe with the blank north wall of the temple. As
the solar light symbolically is said to die as it approaches the winter solstice, so the the winter solstice of the spirit. Reaching the winter solstice, the sun apparently stands
still for three days and then, rolling away the stone of winter, begins its triumphal march
north towards the summer solstice. The condition of ignorance may be likened to the
winter solstice of philosophy; spiritual understanding to the summer solstice. From this
point of view, initiation into the Mysteries becomes the vernal equinox of the spirit, at
which time the CHiram in man crosses from the realm of mortality into that of eternal
life. The autumnal equinox is analogous to the mythological fall of man, at which time
the human spirit descended into the realms of Hades by being immersed in the illusion of
In An Essay on the Beautiful, Plotinus describes the refining effect of beauty upon the
unfolding consciousness of man. Commissioned to decorate the Everlasting House,
CHiram Abiff is the embodiment of the beautifying principle. Beauty is essential to the
natural unfoldment of the human soul. The Mysteries held that man, in part at least, was
the product of his environment. Therefore they considered it imperative that every person
be surrounded by objects which would evoke the highest and noblest sentiments. They
proved that it was possible to produce beauty in life by surrounding life with beauty.
They discovered that symmetrical bodies were built by souls continuously in the presence
of symmetrical bodies; that noble thoughts were produced by minds surrounded by
examples of mental nobility. Conversely, if a man were forced to look upon an ignoble or
asymmetrical structure it would arouse within him a sense of ignobility which would
provoke him to commit ignoble deeds. If an ill-proportioned building were erected in the
midst of a city there would be ill-proportioned children born in that community; and men
and women, gazing upon the asymmetrical structure, would live inharmonious lives.
Thoughtful men of antiquity realized that their great philosophers were the natural
products of the æsthetic ideals of architecture, music, and art established as the standards
of the cultural systems of the time.
The substitution of the discord of the fantastic for the harmony of the beautiful constitutes
one of the great tragedies of every civilization. Not only were the Savior-Gods of the
ancient world beautiful, but each performed a ministry of beauty, seeking to effect man's
regeneration by arousing within him the love of the beautiful. A renaissance of the golden
age of fable can be made possible only by the elevation of beauty to its rightful dignity as
the all-pervading, idealizing quality in the religious, ethical, sociological, scientific, and
political departments of life. The Dionysiac Architects were consecrated to the raising of
their Master Spirit--Cosmic Beauty--from the sepulcher of material ignorance and
selfishness by erecting buildings which were such perfect exemplars of symmetry and
majesty that they were actually magical formulæ by which was evoked the spirit of the
martyred Beautifier entombed within a materialistic world.
In the Masonic Mysteries the triune spirit of man (the light Delta) is symbolized by the
three Grand Masters of the Lodge of Jerusalem. As God is the pervading principle of
three worlds, in each of which He manifests as an active principle, so the spirit of man,
partaking of the nature of Divinity, dwells upon three planes of being: the Supreme, the
Superior, and the Inferior spheres of the Pythagoreans. At the gate of the Inferior sphere
(the underworld, or dwelling place of mortal creatures) stands the guardian of Hades--the
three--headed dog Cerberus, who is analogous to the three murderers of the Hiramic
legend. According to this symbolic interpretation of the triune spirit, CHiram is the third,
or incarnating, part--the Master Builder who through all ages erects living temples of
flesh and blood as shrines of the Most High. CHiram comes forth as a flower and is cut
down; he dies at the gates of matter; he is buried in the elements of creation, but--like
Thor--he swings his mighty hammer in the fields of space, sets the primordial atoms in
motion, and establishes order out of Chaos. As the potentiality of cosmic power within
each human soul, CHiram lies waiting for man by the elaborate ritualism of life to
transmute potentiality into divine potency. As the sense perceptions of the individual
increase, however, man gains ever greater control over his various parts, and the spirit of
life within gradually attains freedom. The three murderers represent the laws of the
Inferior world--birth, growth, and decay--which ever frustrate the plan of the Builder. To
the average individual, physical birch actually signifies the death of CHiram, and
physical death the resurrection of CHiram. To the initiate, however, the resurrection of
the spiritual nature is accomplished without the intervention of physical death.
The curious symbols found in the base of Cleopatra's Needle now standing in Central
Park, New York, were interpreted as being of first Masonic significance by S. A. Zola,
33° Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Egypt. Masons' marks and symbols are to
be found on the stones of numerous public buildings not only in England and on the
Continent but also in Asia. In his Indian Masons' Marks of the Moghul Dynasty, A.
Gorham describes scores of markings appearing on the walls of buildings such as the Taj
Mahal, the Jama Masjid, and that: famous Masonic structure, the Kutab Minar.
According to those who regard Masonry as an outgrowth of the secret society of
architects and builders which for thousands of years formed a caste of master craftsmen,
CHiram Abiff was the Tyrian Grand Master of a world-wide organization of artisans,
with headquarters in Tyre. Their philosophy consisted of incorporating into the
measurements and ornamentation of temples, palaces, mausoleums, fortresses, and other
public buildings their knowledge of the laws controlling the universe. Every initiated
workman was given a hieroglyphic with which he marked the stones he trued to show to
all posterity that he thus dedicated to the Supreme Architect of the Universe each
perfected product of his labor. Concerning Masons' marks, Robert Freke Gould writes:
"It is very remarkable that these marks are to be found in all countries--in the chambers
of the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, on the underground walls of Jerusalem, in Herculaneum
and Pompeii, on Roman walls and Grecian temples, in Hindustan, Mexico, Peru, Asia
Minor--as well as on the great ruins of England, France, Germany, Scotland, Italy,
Portugal and Spain." (See A Concise History of Freemasonry.)
From this viewpoint the story of CHiram may well represent the incorporation of the
divine secrets of architecture into the actual parts and dimensions of earthly buildings.
The three degrees of the Craft bury the Grand Master (the Great Arcanum) in the actual
structure they erect, after first having killed him with the builders' tools, by reducing the
dimensionless Spirit of Cosmic Beauty to the limitations of concrete form. These abstract
ideals of architecture can be resurrected, however, by the Master Mason who, by
meditating upon the structure, releases therefrom the divine principles of architectonic
philosophy incorporated or buried within it. Thus the physical building is actually the
tomb or embodiment of the Creative Ideal of which its material dimensions are but the
Moreover, the Hiramic legend may be considered to embody the vicissitudes of
philosophy itself. As institutions for the dissemination of ethical culture, the pagan
Mysteries were the architects of civilization. Their power and dignity were personified in
CHiram Abiff--the Master Builder--but they eventually fell a victim to the onslaughts of
that recurrent trio of state, church, and mob. They were desecrated by the state, jealous of
their wealth and power; by the early church, fearful of their wisdom; and by the rabble or
soldiery incited by both state and church. As CHiram when raised from his grave
whispers the Master Mason's Word which was lost through his untimely death, so
according to the tenets of philosophy the reestablishment or resurrection of the ancient
Mysteries will result in the rediscovery of that secret teaching without which civilization
must continue in a state of spiritual confusion and uncertainty.
When the mob governs, man is ruled by ignorance; when the church governs, he is ruled
by superstition; and when the state governs, he is ruled by fear. Before men can live
together in harmony and understanding, ignorance must be transmuted into wisdom,
superstition into an illumined faith, and fear into love. Despite statements to the contrary,
Masonry is a religion seeking to unite God and man by elevating its initiates to that level
of consciousness whereon they can behold with clarified vision the workings of the Great
Architect of the Universe. From age to age the vision of a perfect civilization is preserved
as the ideal for mankind. In the midst of that civilization shall stand a mighty university
wherein both the sacred and secular sciences concerning the mysteries of life will be
freely taught to all who will assume the philosophic life. Here creed and dogma will have
no place; the superficial will be removed and only the essential be preserved. The world
will be ruled by its most illumined minds, and each will occupy the position for which he
is most admirably fitted.
The great university will be divided into grades, admission to which will be through
preliminary tests or initiations. Here mankind will be instructed in the most sacred, the
most secret, and the most enduring of all Mysteries--Symbolism. Here the initiate will be
taught that every visible object, every abstract thought, every emotional reaction is but
the symbol of an eternal principle. Here mankind will learn that CHiram (Truth) lies
buried in every atom of Kosmos; that every form is a symbol and every symbol the tomb
of an eternal verity. Through education--spiritual, mental, moral, and physical--man will
learn to release living truths from their lifeless coverings. The perfect government of the
earth must be patterned eventually after that divine government by which the universe is
ordered. In that day when perfect order is reestablished, with peace universal and good
triumphant, men will no longer seek for happiness, for they shall find it welling up within
themselves. Dead hopes, dead aspirations, dead virtues shall rise from their graves, and
the Spirit of Beauty and Goodness repeatedly slain by ignorant men shall again be the
Master of Work. Then shall sages sit upon the seats of the mighty and the gods walk with men.
* * * * *
RasTafari Kingly and Queenly Love,
Sis Ila Addis